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atheletic resume Athletic recruiting resumes were all the essay by robert wrigley rage back in the 80”s and early 90’s. The Internet didn’t exist and the only way to communicate your information to college coaches was via a recruiting resume sent in of nursing thesis, the mail. Wrigley. How times have changed. There is still a place for the resume, so let’s talk about some of the things you can include and creative consultant where you might use them. In 1973 Dave Winfield, the essay by robert former major league baseball player graduated from the chemistry University of Minnesota. At 6#8243;7#8243; and 250 pounds, Winfield was an imposing figure in the athletic world. Upon graduation, Winfield was drafted by 4 professional sports teams in three different sports. Essay By Robert. He was drafted by thesis, the San Diego Padres (baseball), the Atlanta Hawks (NBA) and Utah Stars (ABA) and the Minnesota Vikings (football). Essay Wrigley. Winfield was voted MVP of the college world series in 1973 and in 1972 his Gophers basketball team won their first Big Ten championship. Winfield#8217;s athletic resume in essay on freedom, college was impressive and essay wrigley gave pro teams lots of stats. It was missing just one thing though, football stats!
You might be interested to learn that Dave Winfield did not even play football in college. He had no touchdowns, no sacks, no tackles, no interceptions, and no fumble recoveries. Many parents and story comparison essay assignment students are now asking me, Do I still need a recruiting resume and what should I put on it? The answer, maybe and it depends. Dave Winfield was able to get recruited to essay by robert a professional football team with no stats to speak of. If he tried to create a football resume, it would have said College World Series MVP and 6#8217;7#8243; 250 pounds and the rest would have been blank! Parents are obsessed with stats. Moodle Thesis Module. In most cases they want to create a 2 page resume that has every stat their son or daughter has ever accumulated in wrigley, high school.
The problem is college coaches do not recruit stats and chemistry chips stats tell them very little about you as an athlete or as a person. One of the best quotes I saw from a college coach was as follows. #8220;There are like 20,000 high schools that have a boys varsity basketball team in essay wrigley, the country, and short comparison essay thus there are 20,000 leading scorers for every team. But just because those 20,000 kids lead their team in scoring doesn#8217;t mean they will get recruited or can get recruited even though they have the best stats on their team!#8221; I myself played one year of essay high school baseball, and my stats were not that impressive, but I had a great arm and glove (an impossible stat to display on a piece of paper), I could dunk a basketball at list of nursing thesis, 5#8217;10#8221; (hard to display athletic ability through stats), and for by robert, fun I used to catch fly balls in the outfield using my bare hand (they don#8217;t have a stat for this!) Most of these things were strong athletic traits that would prove useful playing college baseball. Essay. Somehow I managed to walk on and start at a Division I baseball program without any high school stats of any significance. Dave Winfield got drafted in football because he was an amazing athlete and essay by robert really tall, and really fast, and really strong and really big. Essay. He also had the fortune of being able to display his skills to pro scouts for several years in by robert, college. Conflict. So what role can a resume play? A resume can play several roles. A resume can be used to by robert wrigley give to coaches you might come in contact with at tournaments, camps or clinics, tryouts, or showcases. It should be used as a supplement to what I will explain in the next paragraph. Chemistry Marble Chips Coursework. If you are going to by robert wrigley an event, grab 30 resume#8217;s and keep them in marble coursework, the car.
You never know when you will need to hand it out. If you are visiting schools and happen to meet with the coach, give them a resume as well. By Robert. They may have your information already, but it will serve as a refresher. I attended a football camp to watch the comparison essay assignment son of a parent who had purchased a book. During one of the breaks in camp activity the head coach from one of the wrigley colleges approached the father and moodle module asked about essay wrigley, his son. The father reached into a notebook he had and pulled out a resume for chips, his son and handed it to the coach. The coach had all the information he needed in seconds and the coach filed it away in his notebook. Essay Wrigley. When asked what type of college his son might be interested in, he said #8220;his mom would love it if he attended a Liberal Arts College!#8221; It was a great open-ended answer to marble chips a college coach who coached at a #8220;Liberal Arts College.#8221; In reality, most if not all college teams have an online recruit form on their team’s website. This form will allow you to submit information to college coaches that will be sent right to them.
The online recruit form is an important first step in by robert wrigley, the recruiting process. Filling out this form signifies to the college coach that you are interested in essay on freedom of speech, possibly playing for their program and found their school by essay by robert, doing your own research. You will not get recruited by simply filling out this form, but you probably won#8217;t get recruited if you don#8217;t fill out this form. Salary. The form and information you are submitting are simply a way to wrigley get on a coaches radar screen, a way of saying, coach this is who I am, this is where I am, this is what I do and I am interested in possibly playing for your program. Essay On Freedom Of Speech. Many families want to throw stats at essay wrigley, a college coach and say coach, look at these stats, my son/daughter leads their team in goals or scoring, and won the league MVP, and hit .400 for their summer team, and scored 20 goals in field hockey, and ran for 12 touchdowns, and was 9-0 in tennis matches, and conflict management research papers had 14 rebounds vs. [insert high school here].
These numbers don#8217;t tell coaches how athletic you are, how driven you are, how hard you work, how good a teammate you are and essay by robert so forth. Essay. These are the things college coaches need to know and they cannot be easily conveyed via an athletic resume. The college athletes you see on TV playing football and basketball every weekend are not typical college athletes. Essay By Robert Wrigley. Most college coaches try to recruit strong academic students who have a passion for marble chips coursework, playing athletics and essay wrigley want to come to THEIR school. Are there sports where stats can be useful? Sports like swimming, track and field, or golf have tangible stats (times or distances) that can be turned into chips something meaningful. Your 100 meter dash time is your 100 meter dash time, it is something that can be compared to something else and interpreted in a meaningful way. Same with swimming.
If you swim a certain event in a certain time, take those times and compare them to essay by robert wrigley different college swimming programs. Golf is a little tricky, because a golf handicap is often manipulated or lower if you always play at your home course, so college coaches in most cases will look at your tournament scores on a local, state, and moodle module national level. So what about other sports? What if you were a field goal kicker and essay wrigley successfully kicked 5 out of 15 field goals? Would you want to list those stats on a resume? What if 9 of those field goals were blocked because you had a young or weak offensive line? What if you were 1-20 hitting on your baseball or softball team, would you want to chemistry chips list that you are an essay by robert wrigley, .050 hitter?
What if 18 of your at-bats were fly-outs to the warning track in center field 400 feet away (balls you just missed or hit to the wrong place?). What if you were a goalie and went 7-10? Would that stat help you get recruited? What if your defense consisted of moodle thesis underclassmen or key defensive players were hurt during your season, or your offense couldn#8217;t score to help your team win? My friend hit .438 his senior year in high school. He was one of the essay by robert wrigley league leaders. He didn#8217;t get recruited because he wasn#8217;t that good a hitter or fielder for that matter. He just happened to hit .438 his senior year. Of Nursing Thesis. What if you miss your junior year because you had surgery or broke your hand. You have no stats to speak of. Can you not play college athletic because you have no stats?
Of course not, you just have to sell your abilities. Ok, so what can a resume include? Your recruiting resume can include the following. The goal here is to provide college coaches important contact information, academic information, and to give them some insight into what you have accomplished thus far in your athletic endeavors. By Robert Wrigley. You will not get recruited because of module a resume, it will only by robert wrigley, serve to peak a coaches interest, which is all you can really hope for. Contact Information – Full name, address, phone #, email address. Personal Date of Birth, names of parent(s), or legal guardian. Academic information Name, address, and phone # of essay high school, graduation date, GPA (and the essay by robert wrigley scale it#8217;s based on essay (usually a 4.0 scale but some schools are 6.0), class rank, PSAT/SAT/ACT scores.
The academic information will be really important to college coaches, they need to know you are close to what their school typically looks for essay by robert, in a student-athlete. Athletic information – One way is to moodle thesis provide a summary of each year you participated. It’s a good way for a coach to read how you progressed from year to year. Here is an example. High School Golf (2010) Junior year I was captain of the varsity golf team, and played the by robert wrigley number one position. The team placed third in the conference and advanced to the state sectionals. Individually, I advanced through state regional sectional qualifying to salary make it to the state championship where I placed fourth.
I was honored as the team#8217;s MVP and ended the year with a 36 average for nine-hole rounds and was 10-0 in essay, match play events. Chemistry Coursework. Physical Stats Height, weight, 40 or 60 yard running times, bench press, vertical jump measurable things that can be validated at a camp or showcase. Most coaches are skeptics about this data until they see it for themselves, but you can include it! And for by robert, some sports like football or hockey, college coaches will want more information on your physical abilities. Team and/or individual records – Some sports like golf and tennis will have both.
You will have an individual match record and a team record. Try to of nursing put things in context. Telling a coach you went 9-0 in match play means nothing, but telling a coach you went 9-0 in match play with a 9-hole stroke average of essay by robert wrigley 37 is consultant, more meaningful. Junior Ranking – If you have a junior national ranking by all means include this. But if you have a junior national ranking, you may not need to send detailed resumes to essay wrigley coaches, as your ranking reveals your talents already. Short Story Assignment. Some sports like swimming or tennis recruit based on the national junior rankings and each college knows the caliber of wrigley athletes they can realistically recruit based on their individual ranking.
Jersey Colors and coursework number for home and away. If a coach shows up for a game they can find you more easily! Any pertinent statistics and how you ranked on the team and in the league Don’t go crazy with individual statistics. Without supporting information, it won#8217;t mean much. Essay By Robert Wrigley. Batting averages, rebounds, rushing yards, or points are all subjective stats! There is much more college coaches need to know.
Honors or awards received and the year they were received (MVP, All-State, scoring titles) as well as league or state records you may hold. These can be listed separately or within your yearly descriptions. Again, these are subjective. Being MVP of list your league doesn#8217;t mean you are deserve or are getting a full ride to Stanford. References Name and phone # of essay HS and thesis summer or off-season coach, athletic director, and by robert wrigley guidance counselor, instructors, personal trainers or camp directors you have worked with (make sure these people know you put their name down so they are not surprised if and when they get a phone call from a coach). Only use a name that can and will help you. A good reference from someone reliable will do more for you than any stats you list will! Schedules You can include a schedule of tournaments, camps, showcases or important events you will be attending throughout the year. Sign up for the Varsityedge.com newsletter.
The Making of a Student-Athlete is a 241-page guide in it#8217;s 17th edition for high school athletes, parents, coaches who wish to learn the chemistry marble coursework complicated college athletic recruiting and application process. Essay By Robert Wrigley. Whether you are a parent, a blue-chip athlete, an aspiring scholarship athlete, a walk-on prospect, a coach or guidance counselor wondering how you can help yourself or your players, The Making of a Student-Athlete will guide you through the short story essay archaic world of the college selection and by robert athletic recruiting process.
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Pia Christensen is defending her PhD thesis: Efficacy and Safety of Low Energy Diets in by robert wrigley, the Treatment of Older Obese Individuals Read more. 22 November 2012, 14:00. Thomas P. Gunnarsson is defending his PhD thesis: Effects of intensified training on conflict management research, muscle ion transport proteins and kinetics in relation to by robert, fatigue development and performance of management endurance athletes and by robert wrigley soccer players Read more. 12 October 2012, 14:00. Lars Klingenberg is defending his PhD thesis: Acute Effects of Insufficient Sleep on Energy Balance Read more. 20 September 2012, 14:30. PhD defence - Christian Kirkegaard Pehmoller. Christian Kirkegaard Pehmøller is defending his PhD thesis: Regulation of TBC1D1 and chemistry marble chips coursework TBC1D4 in skeletal muscle From mouse to man Read more. PhD defence - Sarah Fredsted Villadsen. Sarah Fredsted Villadsen is defending her PhD thesis: Strategic perspectives on antenatal care.
Development of a participatory antenatal care strengthening intervention in Jimma, Ethiopia Read more. PhD defence - Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen. Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen is defending his PhD thesis: The Double Burden. Wrigley. The role of diabetes for tuberculosis risk, manifestations, treatment outcomes and survival Read more. 5 July 2012, 13:00.
Brynjulf Mortensen is defending her PhD thesis: The impact of the intrauterine environment, exercise and physical inactivity on the skeletal muscle AMPK system and downstream targets Read more. 25 June 2012, 14:30. Tue Hvass Petersen is defending his PhD-thesis - Development of management research papers Neural Control of Human Gait Read more. 3 May 2012, 13:00. PhD defence - Mette Landau Brab?k Christiansen. Mette Landau Brabæk Christiansen is defending her PhD thesis: Regulation of lipid metabolism in wrigley, skeletal muscle - Insights from human cell culture and rodent models Read more. 16 March 2012, 12:30. PhD defence - Jonas Moller Kristensen.
Jonas Møller Kristensen is defending his PhD-thesis - Role of essay of speech metformin in regulation of AMPK activation, glucose uptake and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue Read more. Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports. PhD thesis published in Danish by Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of essay Copenhagen.
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Critical Analysis Essay-Robert Wrigley | Free Verse Poem About
amt business plan This business plan is essay by robert wrigley part of our regular business planning process. Chemistry Marble Chips? We revise this plan every quarter. Essay By Robert? Sales increasing to story essay, more than $10 million by the third year. Bring gross margin back up to essay wrigley, above 25%, and maintain that level. Sell $2 million of service, support, and training by 1997. Of Nursing? Improve inventory turnover to 6 turns next year, 7 in by robert, 1996, and essay assignment, 8 in 1997. AMT is such a vendor.
It serves its clients as a trusted ally, providing them with the loyalty of a business partner and the economics of an outside vendor. We make sure that our clients have what they need to run their businesses as well as possible, with maximum efficiency and reliability. Many of our information applications are mission critical, so we give our clients the assurance that we will be there when they need us. Differentiate from box-pushing, price-oriented businesses by offering and delivering service and wrigley, support -- and chips coursework, charging for it. By Robert Wrigley? Increase gross margin to more than 25%. Increase our non-hardware sales to chips coursework, 20% of the total sales by the third year. The more detailed numbers in the past performance table that follows include other indicators of some concern: The gross margin % has been declining steadily, as we see in essay by robert wrigley, the chart. Inventory turnover is short comparison getting steadily worse. All of these concerns are part of the general trend affecting computer resellers. The margin squeeze is happening throughout the computer industry worldwide. 2. Essay Wrigley? 4 Company locations and of nursing thesis, facilities.
Ultimately, we are really selling information technology. We sell reliability, and confidence. We sell the assurance to small business people to know that their business will not suffer an essay by robert information technology disaster. AMT serves its clients as a trusted ally, providing them with the loyalty of a business partner and the economics of an creative consultant salary outside vendor. We make sure that our clients have what they need to run their business as well as possible, with maximum efficiency and reliability. Since many of our information applications are mission critical, we give our clients the confidence that we will be there when they need us. 3. 1 Product and Service Description. The Super Home is our smallest and least expensive, initially positioned by by robert its manufacturer as a home computer. We use it mainly as a cheap workstation for small business installations. Its specifications include . [truncated because this plan is provided for purposes of illustration only] The Power User is our main upscale line.
It is list our most important system for high-end home and small business main workstations, because of essay wrigley . Its key strengths are . Short Assignment? [truncated because this plan is provided for purposes of essay wrigley illustration only] Its specifications include . [truncated because this plan is provided for purposes of illustration only] The Business Special is an writing salary intermediate system, used to fill the gap in essay, the positioning. On Freedom? Its specifications include . [truncated because this plan is provided for essay wrigley purposes of illustration only] In peripherals, accessories and other hardware, we carry a complete line of necessary items from cables to forms to mousepads . [truncated because this plan is provided for purposes of illustration only] In service and conflict research papers, support, we offer a range of essay walk-in or depot service, maintenance contracts and essay on freedom, on-site guarantees. We have not had much success selling service contracts. Our networking capabilities are important to our overall mix, because small business needs networking and essay by robert, needs to buy networking. Chemistry Marble Chips Coursework? In software, we sell a complete line of . [truncated because this plan is provided for purposes of illustration only]. In training, we offer . [truncated because this plan is provided for essay purposes of illustration only]. The benefits we sell include many intangibles: confidence, reliability, knowing that somebody will be there to answer questions and story essay assignment, help at the important times.
These are complex products, products that require serious knowledge and experience to essay wrigley, use, and our competitors sell only the products themselves. Unfortunately, we cannot sell the products at a higher price just because we offer services; the writing consultant, market has shown that it will not support that concept. We have to also sell the service and charge for it separately. With the essay, hardware lines, our margins are declining steadily. We generally buy at . Our margins are thus being squeezed from the 25% of five years ago to thesis, more like 13-15% at present. Essay Wrigley? In the mainline peripherals a similar trend shows, with prices for printers and monitors declining steadily. We are also starting to see that same trend with software . In order to hold costs down as much as possible, we concentrate our purchasing with Hauser, which offers 30-day net terms and overnight shipping from the warehouse in Dayton. We need to concentrate on making sure our volume gives us negotiating strength. In accessories and add-ons we can still get decent margins, 25% to 40%.
For software, margins are ..[truncated because this plan is provided for purposes of module illustration only]. Defining the high-end home office is even more difficult. We generally know the characteristics of essay by robert our target market, but we can't find easy classifications that fit into available demographics. Thesis? The high-end home office business is a business, not a hobby. It generates enough money to merit the owner's paying real attention to essay by robert, the quality of information technology management, meaning that there is both budget and concerns that warrant working with our level of quality service and chips coursework, support.
We can assume that we aren't talking about by robert wrigley home offices used only part-time by people who work elsewhere during the day, and that our target market home office wants to chips, have powerful technology and a lot of links between computing, telecommunications, and video. Computer dealers: storefront computer resellers, usually less than 5,000 square feet, often focused on a few main brands of hardware, usually offering only essay by robert wrigley a minimum of software, and variable amounts of service and support. These are usually old-fashioned (1980s-style) computer stores and they usually offer relatively few reasons for buyers to shop with them. Their service and assignment, support is essay by robert not usually very good and their prices are usually higher than the larger stores. Chain stores and computer superstores: these include major chains such as CompUSA, Computer City, Future Shop, etc.
They are almost always more than 10,000 square feet of space, usually offer decent walk-in service, and module, are often warehouse-like locations where people go to wrigley, find products in boxes with very aggressive pricing, and management research papers, little support. Mail order: the market is served increasingly by mail order businesses that offer aggressive pricing of boxed product. For the purely price-driven buyer, who buys boxes and expects no service, these are very good options. Others: there are many other channels through which people buy their computers, usually variations of the main three types above. The national chains are a growing presence. CompUSA, Computer City, Incredible Universe, Babbages, Egghead, and wrigley, others. They benefit from national advertising, economies of scale, volume buying, and a general trend toward name-brand loyalty for buying in the channels as well as for products. Local computer stores are threatened.
These tend to be small businesses, owned by people who started them because they liked computers. They are under-capitalized and under-managed. Writing Consultant? Margins are squeezed as they compete against the chains, in a competition based on price more than on essay wrigley, service and support. Management Research? There is usually a lot of leakage in ad-hoc purchasing through local chain stores and mail order. Often the administrators try to discourage this, but are only by robert partially successful. Unfortunately our Home Office target buyers may not expect to buy from us. Many of them turn immediately to the superstores (office equipment, office supplies, and electronics) and mail order to conflict management research papers, look for the best price, without realizing that there is a better option for them at only a little bit more.
4. 2. Essay Wrigley? 3 Competition and Buying Patterns. There is essay of speech no doubt that we compete much more against all the box pushers than against other service providers. We need to effectively compete against the idea that businesses should buy computers as plug-in appliances that don't need ongoing service, support, and essay by robert, training. Our focus group sessions indicated that our target Home Offices think about price but would buy based on writing consultant, quality service if the offering were properly presented. They think about price because that's all they ever see. We have very good indications that many would rather pay 10-20% more for a relationship with a long-term vendor providing back-up and quality service and support; they end up in the box-pusher channels because they aren't aware of the alternatives. Availability is also very important.
The Home Office buyers tend to want immediate, local solutions to essay by robert, problems. We have Store 1 and Store 2 already within the chemistry chips, valley, and Store 3 is expected by essay wrigley the end of next year. If our strategy works, we will have differentiated ourselves sufficiently to not have to compete against these stores. Strengths: national image, high volume, aggressive pricing, economies of thesis scale. Wrigley? Weaknesses: lack of product, service and support knowledge, lack of conflict research personal attention. Other local computer stores: Store 4 and Store 5 are both in essay, the downtown area. They are both competing against the chains in marble coursework, an attempt to match prices. When asked, the owners will complain that margins are squeezed by the chains and customers buy on price only. Essay Wrigley? They say they tried offering services and that buyers didn't care, instead preferring lower prices. We think the problem is also that they didn't really offer good service, and also that they didn't differentiate from the chains.
Home offices include several types. Management? The most important, for our plan's focus, are the by robert, home offices that are the only offices of real businesses, from which people make their primary living. These are likely to be professional services such as graphic artists, writers, and salary, consultants, some accountants and the occasional lawyer, doctor, or dentist. There are also part-time home offices with people who are employed during the day but work at home at night, people who work at wrigley home to provide themselves with a part-time income, or people who maintain home offices relating to their hobbies; we will not be focusing on this segment. Small business within our market includes virtually any business with a retail, office, professional, or industrial location outside of someone's home, and fewer than 30 employees. We estimate 45,000 such businesses in our market area. The 30-employee cutoff is conflict research arbitrary. We find that the larger companies turn to other vendors, but we can sell to departments of larger companies, and we shouldn't be giving up leads when we get them. Essay Wrigley? 5. Essay On Freedom Of Speech? 0 Strategy and Implementation Summary. Emphasize service and by robert, support. We must differentiate ourselves from the box pushers.
We need to establish our business offering as a clear and viable alternative for our target market, to the price-only kind of buying. Build a relationship-oriented business. Build long-term relationships with clients, not single-transaction deals with customers. Thesis Module? Become their computer department, not just a vendor. Make them understand the essay wrigley, value of the relationship.
Focus on target markets. We need to focus our offerings on small business as the key market segment we should own. This means the 5-20 unit system, tied together in a local area network, in chemistry chips coursework, a company with 5-50 employees. Our values -- training, installation, service, support, knowledge -- are more cleanly differentiated in this segment. By Robert? As a corollary, the high end of the home office market is also appropriate. We do not want to compete for the buyers who go to the chain stores or mail order, but we definitely want to be able to conflict management research, sell individual systems to the smart home office buyers who want a reliable, full-service vendor. By Robert? Differentiate and fulfill the promise. We can't just market and list of nursing thesis, sell service and support, we must actually deliver as well. We need to make sure we have the knowledge-intensive business and service-intensive business we claim to have. Emphasize service and support Build a relationship business Focus on small business and high-end home office as key target markets. 5. 1. 1 Target Markets and Market Segments.
We cannot build the service and support revenue into essay wrigley the price of products. The market can't bear the management, higher prices and the buyer feels ill-used when they see the same product priced lower at the chains. Despite the logic behind this, the market doesn't support this concept. Therefore, we must make sure that we deliver and charge for service and support. Training, service, installation, networking support-- all of this must be readily available and priced to sell and deliver revenue.
All advertising has to emphasize the differentiation point rather than price or straight-on price-only competition with the chains. We'll be developing a now what do you do message to build up the target market's need for essay an information technology ally as opposed to the large chains reputation as box pushers without support or service behind the products. Essay On Freedom? Our collaterals have to sell the company, not the product. Why work with AMT? We must radically improve our direct mail efforts, reaching our established customers with training, support services, upgrades, and seminars. It's time to work more closely with the local media. We could offer the local radio a regular talk show on technology for small business, as one example. We need to sell the company, not the product. We sell AMT, not Apple, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, or Compaq, or any of our software brand names.
We have to sell our service and support. The hardware is like the razor, and the support, service, software services, training, and seminars are the razor blades. We need to wrigley, serve our customers with what they really need. Thesis? The Yearly Total Sales chart summarizes our ambitious sales forecast. We expect sales to increase from $5.3 million last year to more than $7 million next year and to more than $10 million in by robert, the last year of this plan. Direct mail: Use great detail to describe your company's programs here. On Freedom? Seminars: Use great detail to describe your company's programs here. Essay Wrigley? Training: details would be essential in a real business plan, but not in moodle thesis, this sample plan. Upgrade offers: details would be essential in a real business plan, but not in this sample plan.
Our own internal training: details would be essential in a real business plan, but not in this sample plan. Installation services: details would be essential in a real business plan, but not in this sample plan. Custom software services: details would be essential in a real business plan, but not in this sample plan. Network configuration services: details would be essential in a real business plan, but not in this sample plan. Sabrina Benson, VP Marketing: 36 years old, joined us last year following a very successful career with Continental Computers. Her hiring was the culmination of essay a long recruiting search. With Continental she managed the VAR marketing division. She is committed to re-engineering AMT to be a service and support business that sells computers, not vice-versa.
MBA, undergraduate degree in history. Gary Andrews, VP Service and Support: 48 years old, 18 years with Large Computers, Inc. in programming and service-related positions, 7 years with AMT. MS in computer science and BS in electrical engineering. Laura Dannis, VP Sales: 32, former teacher, joined AMT part-time in 1991 and went full-time in 1992. Very high people skills, BA in elementary education. She has taken several sales management courses at the local SBDC. John Peters, Director of Administration: 43, started with AMT as a part-time bookkeeper in 1987, and moodle, has become full-time administrative and financial backbone of the company.
At present, we are weakest in the area of technical capabilities to manage the essay wrigley, database marketing programs and upgraded service and support, particularly with cross-platform networks. We also need to find a training manager. 6. 5 Other Management Considerations. Paul Jones, public relations consultant, is also a co-founder and co- owner. Like Dudley, he invested in the early stages and remains a trusted confidant and vendor of public relations and advertising services. Margins are harder to assume. Our overall average of $343/248 is based on past sales. We hope to attain a margin that high in the future. The chart shows that we need to sell about $340,000 per month to break even, according to research, these assumptions. This is about half of our planned 1995 sales level, and significantly below our last year's sales level, so we believe we can maintain it. The gross margin % has been declining steadily, as we see in the chart.
Inventory turnover is getting steadily worse. All of these concerns are part of the essay by robert wrigley, general trend affecting computer resellers. The margin squeeze is happening throughout the computer industry worldwide.
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Information for Readers and Authors. No registration is by robert required and creative writing salary access is free. There is no online submission or registration. Authors wishing to submit a piece of work should review the author guidelines and then email submissions to [emailprotected] An Argument for Terrorism. It has become something of wrigley, a cliche to note that there are over 200 definitions of terrorism in existence within broader terrorism studies literature; that many terrorism scholars have given up on the definitional debate and use the term unreflectively; and that such a state of affairs hampers theoretical progress and chemistry marble chips coursework skews terrorism research in by robert wrigley, unhelpful ways. However, the significance and consequences of the definitional debate go far beyond such narrow academic confines, important as they are to the field. Rather, the issue of definition is central to the way in which the Global War on Terror is prosecuted by the authorities both domestically and overseas. It also affects the way in which terrorism is understood and dealt with as a criminal act under international and chemistry marble coursework domestic law. Essay Wrigley? In the academic and cultural realms, the chemistry marble definition of terrorism has important implications for the way knowledge and commonsense about the subject is constructed and reproduced socially. Furthermore, it has substantial indirect consequences for individuals and groups labelled as terrorists – who may then be legally subject to torture, rendition and internment without trial – and for the suspect communities they belong to.
This paper argues that despite a number of serious political and ontological obstacles to the definition of terrorism, it should be possible to agree on a clear set of criteria that can be employed to distinguish and essay by robert wrigley conceptualise terrorism as a unique form of political violence. Thesis Module? There are a great many advantages to adopting these definitional criteria. More importantly, there are political-normative imperatives for retaining terrorism as a central organising concept for the field. The paper begins by discussing some of the main challenges in defining terrorism and by robert the kinds of knowledge practices this has resulted in to comparison essay, date. Essay By Robert? The second section outlines a set of writing, criteria that analysts can employ to distinguish terrorism from other forms of political violence. The final section of the paper attempts to demonstrate how this approach to terrorism can play a role in strengthening rules and norms against illegitimate and oppressive forms of political violence, whether it is committed by state or non-state actors. The Constitution of Terrorism. I have already noted that the definitional debate in terrorism studies has reached something of wrigley, a stalemate.
Not only is of nursing thesis there no agreed definition among scholars, but an by robert wrigley, analysis of 490 articles published in the leading terrorism studies journals between 1990 and 1999 revealed that only eight, or 1.6 percent of them, could be regarded as conceptually-oriented papers. This suggests that many scholars have largely given up on the challenging theoretical debates surrounding the list of nursing thesis central concept of the field. Wrigley? An examination of broader terrorism studies literature suggests four main approaches and practices towards the definition and conceptualisation of terrorism. Arguably the most frequent practice—particularly amongst scholars who are newly arrived to the subject—is to simply use the term without defining it, on the misguided assumption that it is widely understood and accepted. Such an approach is problematic for short story, a number of very obvious reasons, not least because terrorism is a highly emotive and divisive concept which different scholars and societies have often understood in very different ways. A second approach, confined mainly to essay wrigley, political leaders and security officials, but also to a surprising number of researchers and media pundits, is to define terrorism as an ideology or movement. Although groups specializing solely in terror do sometimes form, they are extremely rare and typically remain highly unstable and ephemeral. There are very few such groups operating today. In reality, most terrorism occurs in the context of wider political struggles in papers, which the use of by robert wrigley, terror is one strategy among other more routine forms of contentious action. As Charles Tilly puts it, Properly understood, terror is a strategy, not a creed. Of Nursing? Terrorists range across a wide spectrum of organizations, circumstances, and essay beliefs. Third, it is not uncommon to see researchers adopt an writing, actor-based definition in the literature, whereby terrorism is defined as a particular form of political violence committed by non-state actors who attack civilians. Bruce Hoffman, for by robert, example, argues that terrorism involves violence perpetrated by a subnational group or non-state entity . This is in keeping with the U.S. State Department's highly influential definition of terrorism, which conceives of terrorism as premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetuated against non-combatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. For scholars who adopt this definition, terrorism is largely indistinguishable from insurgency, militancy, guerrilla warfare and the like.
More importantly, inherent to this approach is an assumption that while states may commit atrocities, engage in chemistry marble, political repression or torture opponents, this nonetheless does not constitute terrorism, in large part because states have the sovereign right to use force. From this perspective, definitions of wrigley, terrorism hinge on moodle, questions of legitimacy and sovereignty and the nature of the actor who employs the violence. As I will argue below, actor-based approaches to the definition of terrorism are both analytically untenable and essay wrigley politically suspect. Lastly, and of nursing most commonly among the leading scholars in the field, terrorism is defined as a violent strategy or tactic that actors employ in pursuit of particular political goals. That is, terrorism is defined and understood by the nature and characteristics of the act itself, rather than the nature of by robert wrigley, actor, and is conceived as a particular kind of political action directed towards certain strategic goals rather than as a broad ideology or movement. Louise Richardson for example, defines terrorism as politically motivated violence directed against writing non combatants or symbolic targets which is designed to communicate a message to a broader audience. Crucially, such a definitional approach accepts that states are also actors who can and essay by robert wrigley frequently do adopt strategies of terrorism and commit terrorist acts. This is a useful formulation that provides the basis for moodle module, the identifying criteria I present below. Partly due to these definitional approaches, research on terrorism in essay, the broader field has been characterised by a number of unfortunate tendencies. An initial tendency widely noted by some critics of the field is the selection bias of short comparison essay assignment, much terrorism research. In this case, the essay terrorism label is applied almost solely to non-state groups opposed to essay on freedom of speech, Western interests. It is usually not applied to those groups supported by Western states – even when they commit identical acts of civilian-directed violence such as hijackings, bombings, kidnappings and assassinations. Thus, while left-wing groups have always received an inordinate amount of by robert, attention in terrorism studies literature, right-wing groups like the Contras, anti-Castro groups, US- and South African-supported movements in Angola and Mozambique, various Afghan factions, numerous Latin American death squads, and today a number of Iraqi death squads, have remained scandalously understudied.
Although this is in part the result of the definitional practices noted above, it is management research also the result of an understandable but avoidable ideological bias amongst many Western scholars who adopt the interests of their own governments. A more serious issue is that the field has been widely criticised for its failure to provide sustained analysis (and moral condemnation) of state terrorism. Indicative of the by robert wrigley almost exclusive focus on short comparison assignment, terrorism from below as opposed to terrorism from above is the finding that only 12, or less than two percent, of articles from essay by robert 1990 to essay, 1999 in the core terrorism studies journals focused on state terrorism,[ 11] and that only 12 of the 768 pages in the Encyclopaedia of World Terrorism (1997) examined state terrorism in essay by robert wrigley, any form. In part, this is due to the not infrequent practice noted above of defining terrorism exclusively as a form of non-state violence. However, there are also many prominent scholars who accept that, objectively, terrorism is a strategy of story comparison, political violence that any actor can employ, including states, yet simply refuse to examine cases of by robert, state terrorism in their research. Walter Laqueur, arguably one of the founders of terrorism studies, is emblematic of this practice: he openly accepts that states have killed many more people and caused far more material and social destruction than terrorism from below, but then argues that this is simply not the type of terrorism he wishes to examine. It is perfectly understandable that scholars would wish to focus on particular subjects, but when an short comparison assignment, entire field neglects what is a very important dimension of the phenomenon, it raises troubling questions about the ideological orientation and political objectivity of the overall field. Clearly, there are reasons for concern over this state of affairs. From a political-normative perspective, the field appears biased towards Western state interests and complicit in the terroristic practices Western states have regularly employed over essay wrigley, the past two hundred years. The well-documented use of political terror by Western states during the colonial period, the thesis terror bombing during World War II and other conflicts, cold war counter-insurgency and pro-insurgency campaigns, the active sponsorship of right-wing non-state terrorist groups and the widespread use of by robert, torture during certain counter-terrorism campaigns, among others, are only the most prominent examples of the kind of terrorism that many Western states have employed.
The failure to analyse state terrorism or to condemn it in the same morally assured terms as non-state terrorism appears to many observers as pro-Western bias and of speech a toleration of certain forms of state-practiced terrorism. In addition, it represents a breakdown of scholarly procedure and a self-imposed intellectual blindness. It is intellectually unsustainable to by robert, argue that states cannot practice terrorism against their own people and against other states. For example, such an approach would argue that a car bomb detonated on a city street by clandestine state agents is short essay assignment not an by robert, act of terrorism, but an research papers, identical attack by non-state actors is. Or that the wrigley kidnap, torture and murder of a civilian by agents of the state are not terrorist acts, but the same act by a non-state group is terrorism. Writing Consultant? Accepting that terrorism can only really be described according to the nature and quality of the essay particular act of violence—rather than the purported legitimacy of the actor who commits it —has a number of serious consequences and implications. In the first place, the acceptance that states are not exempted from on freedom of speech employing terrorism raises serious questions about the by robert broader focus of the field and the empirical foundations it is based on. That is, while non-state terrorists have killed tens of thousands and caused significant damage during the past century and a half, the acceptance that states can be terrorists, too  reveals that some individual states have been responsible for more terrorism than all non-state terrorist groups put together.
A conservative estimate of state-instigated mass murder, forcible starvations and genocide against civilians for management research, example, suggests that governments have been responsible for essay by robert wrigley, 170-200 millions deaths in the twentieth century alone. Even if only moodle thesis a small proportion of these deaths can be strictly defined as state terrorism, the essay by robert few hundred deaths caused every year by non-state terrorists pales beside the massive death, destruction and de-stabilisation caused by some states. Moreover, a great many states continue to employ terrorism on list, a considerable scale against their people today in places like Colombia, Haiti, Algeria, Zimbabwe, Myanmar, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Kashmir, Palestine, Chechnya, Tibet, North Korea, Indonesia, the essay by robert wrigley Philippines and elsewhere. Short Essay Assignment? And yet, the broader terrorism studies field does not include statistics on state terrorism in any of its recognised databases, nor does it expend any real effort trying to understand the nature, causes, strategies and outcomes of state terrorism. A serious analytical breakdown occurs when an essay by robert wrigley, entire field largely fails to examine what is arguably the most serious aspect of the moodle thesis module subject. It would be comparable to an imaginary situation in which criminologists focused most of their research on anti-social behaviour and burglaries, and failed to study in any systematic way the extent and causes of domestic violence, rape, murder, sexual abuse or other serious crimes. Another important consequence of accepting state terrorism as terrorism (and not just repression) is the essay need to re-conceptualise some of the accepted truisms in the field regarding the nature of terrorist behaviour. It is not the case for example, that terrorism is solely the 'weapon of the list weak'; it can also be true that the stronger the essay state, the stronger the temptation to short comparison assignment, rule through a regime of terror. In fact, an objective look at the history of terrorism would suggest that strong actors have used terror far more frequently than weak ones. Moreover, it is clear that contrary to by robert, popular beliefs, terrorism can be employed during war as well as during peace. For example, when states bomb civilian targets of no military value for the sole purpose of terrorising a population into surrender—a case of frightening one group of people in order to produce a political change in another—they are clearly committing a terrorist act. Similarly, counter-terrorism itself can become terrorism under certain conditions: · When it fails to distinguish between the innocent and the guilty; · When it is highly disproportionate; · When it aims to terrify or intimidate the chemistry marble chips wider population or a particular community into submission; · When it is co-opted to serve a political agenda. Ultimately, there are important ethical-normative implications for the notion that states employ terrorism too, often under the guise of counter-terrorism. In the wrigley current climate, virtually every state and international organisation has adopted new anti-terrorism legislation, and military force—including strategic bombing—is frequently being used as a tool of counter-terrorism.
At the very least, scholars should be highly suspicious of any and thesis module all attempts by states to essay, define terrorism in ways that conveniently absolve what they or their agents do from being considered terrorism. They should refuse to accede to the common practice of exempting state officials from charges of creative writing consultant, terrorism, if for no other reason than that: There is something morally suspicious, however, about people making laws that apply to essay wrigley, everyone else accept [ sic ] themselves. Essay Of Speech? The sheer fact that politicians have entered into a mutual-protection pact not to prosecute one another as 'terrorists' cannot change any logical or deontological facts of the matter. If what they do is otherwise indistinguishable from what is done by non-state actors that we would deem to be terroristic, then the acts of the state officials doing the same thing would be morally wrong for just the same reasons. It is not as if there understandable reasons exist for the continuing failure to agree upon by robert wrigley, a definition of the list of nursing thesis field's central concept. In the first place, some of the key concepts at the heart of the definition of terrorism are extremely subjective and difficult to determine objectively. Most definitions of essay, terrorism by leading scholars for of speech, example, describe it as a form of illegitimate violence directed towards innocent civilians that is intended to intimidate or terrify an audience for political purposes. The question of what makes an act of violence legitimate or not, who is considered a civilian, how innocence can be measured, what the essay by robert wrigley real intentions of often clandestine actors might be and what counts as a political aim, are all highly contested and subject to research, competing claims. Essay? As a consequence, in practice it is often the politically and culturally determined legitimacy of the particular group under scrutiny that determines whether its actions are labelled as terrorism and not necessarily the management research characteristics inherent to essay by robert wrigley, the violence itself.
Much more significantly however, terrorism is not a causally coherent, free-standing phenomenon which can be defined in terms of thesis, characteristics inherent to the violence itself. It lacks a clear ontological status—which actually makes an objective definition impossible. As two leading figures in the field put it, The nature of terrorism is not inherent in the violent act itself. One and the same act… can be terrorist or not, depending on intention and circumstance. The bombing of civilians for example, is wrigley not always or inherently a terrorist act; it may be the unintentional consequence of a military operation during war. The reality is that terrorism is a social fact rather than a brute fact. List Of Nursing? Although acts of violence are experienced as brute facts, the by robert wider cultural-political meaning of those acts as terrorism for example, is decided through symbolic labelling, social agreement and a range of inter-subjective practices. That is, as a phenomenon, terrorism is moodle constituted by and through the discursive practices which make it a concrete reality for politicians, law enforcement officials, the media, the public, academics and so on.
We can identify a number of processes by which certain acts and individuals are constructed as terrorism and terrorists, including: · The labelling of certain acts and groups as such by authoritative actors, such as the annual State Department reports; · The legal definitions contained within criminal and international law; · The compiling of statistics on terrorism by the CIA, RAND, and by robert various academics and think-tanks; · The ascriptions of different groups and acts as terrorist in the media; Actions and actors are constituted and on freedom reconstituted as terrorism in a continuous flow of social and political discourse. Moreover, analyses of these discourses reveal significant variation and instabilities between and within institutions, as well as shifts over time in the way terrorism is discursively constructed and delineated. For example, before the essay late 1960s, there was virtually no terrorism spoken of by politicians, the short essay media or academics; there were instead numerous references to bombings, kidnappings, assassinations, hijackings and so on.[ 27] The current discourse of terrorism used by scholars, politicians and by robert the media is in fact, a very recent invention. Similarly, in the 1980s, the Afghan Mujahidin were described as freedom fighters before they were later reconstructed as Islamic terrorists. Numerous other groups and states have experienced the same kind of management research, discursive transformation from terrorist or state-sponsor of essay by robert wrigley, terrorism to freedom fighter, political leader or ally in the War on moodle thesis, Terror.
In an important sense, terrorism does not exist outside of the definitions and essay practices that seek to papers, enclose it. In the essay by robert wrigley same way that races do not exist objectively as a meaningful way of assigning identities and behavioural characteristics to individuals, but classifications of humankind do, so too terrorism does not exist as a kind of essential marker—even if classifications of thesis, different forms of political violence do. A pertinent illustration of the essay by robert wrigley ontological instability of the terrorism label is the observation that there are no less than four recognised terrorists who have gone on to win the Nobel Peace Prize: Menachim Begin, Sean McBride, Nelson Mandela and Yassir Arafat. In other words, even within the confines of contemporary terrorism discourse, once a terrorist, is not always a terrorist. It depends upon module, the current political context and the dominant discourses which determine and constitute it. It is for essay by robert wrigley, this reason, among others, that some scholars argue that the term should be avoided or eschewed altogether in academic research. These scholars suggest that the appropriate focus of study is not the terrorism that exists out there in reality, but the discourses of terrorism and management research papers the discursive practices that construct terrorism as a political and cultural subject. Another set of wrigley, scholars argue more prosaically that terrorism is a political-cultural label and an act of de-legitimisation, and that no group ever accepts its designation as terrorist. They suggest that as a concept, terrorism has been greatly abused by creative consultant salary political interests and has too many negative cultural and political connotations to retain any real analytical value. While these are cogent and challenging arguments, I do not accept that this means we should abandon the attempt to carefully and consistently determine which acts should be considered terrorist, or that we cannot agree on a set of fairly clear identifying criteria which can be employed for research purposes.
An Argument for Terrorism. It is my argument here that in spite of its insecure ontological status, its negative cultural-political baggage and essay its frequent misuse by political and academic actors, there are a number of important political and normative reasons for retaining the term terrorism as an organising concept for the field. I want to further suggest that the term can serve a useful function within a broader progressive political project to restrict and eliminate the use of certain kinds of illegitimate and oppressive forms of political violence. However, in research, order to achieve these lofty goals, scholars need to adopt the aims and commitments of essay by robert, a more 'critical' approach to terrorism. Politically, there are a number of reasons why we should retain the term terrorism and engage in writing consultant salary, sustained and rigorous discursive struggle over its constitution and knowledge production. Most obviously, the term now has widespread political and cultural currency. It is the organising concept for a vast array of powerful political institutions, processes and practices in contemporary society, and scholars who refuse to employ or engage with it risk marginalising their views and their access to power. The term also clearly retains a great deal of academic currency. By Robert Wrigley? There is now a whole field of research, teaching and advocacy surrounding the concept of terrorism, with numerous journals, conferences, teaching programmes, think-tanks, research centres, funding opportunities and advisory posts in moodle thesis, existence. To refuse to employ the by robert wrigley term or engage in debates about its definition and application in marble chips, research is essay by robert wrigley again, to risk marginalisation and irrelevance within this broader scholarly context.
Most importantly however, there is a compelling normative imperative to retain a term that de-legitimises particular kinds of violence directed against civilians and which instrumentalises human suffering for the purposes of influencing an conflict papers, audience. Of course, the normative power of the terrorism label is highly dependent upon its consistent application to essay wrigley, all qualifying cases, including cases involving Western states or their allies. The selectivity and bias of terrorism scholars and political leaders in the past has seriously undermined this project by making it appear that the term is reserved solely for enemies of the West. However, I would argue that this provides a reason for critical engagement rather than withdrawal and capitulation in the discursive struggle. Although terrorism can never be adequately defined due to its unstable ontological status, I want to chemistry marble chips, argue that it can, and should, be described according to a set of identifiable and unique characteristics, which delineate it from other forms of political violence. Furthermore, a review of broader terrorism studies literature would suggest that the essay following conception of comparison essay, terrorism has broad support from many leading scholars in the field and could form the basis of a consensus over how to conceptualise it. Such an approach moreover, has several advantages over most of the existing approaches I outlined above. I suggest that as a form of political violence, terrorism can be described according to four main characteristics.
First, terrorism is an intentional and pre-determined strategy of political violence. This suggests its rational and instrumental basis. It also implies that any actor (states, groups or individuals) can employ it in pursuit of essay wrigley, strategic goals. More importantly, it implies that actors can abandon its use at any time, and on freedom that being a terrorist is not a determinant of wrigley, future behaviour or an indication of some kind of essential evil nature. Consultant Salary? Terrorists can choose to adopt non-violent strategies instead; they can even become statesmen and peacemakers. Importantly, it also implies political motivations, as a way of by robert, distinguishing terrorism from moodle other forms of essay wrigley, violence designed to terrify, such as the intimidation of communities by organised criminals seeking to obtain financial reward, the terror caused by a serial killer, or the fear caused by a one-off mass killing. Lastly, it implies forethought and intentionality, as opposed to the terror induced by rioting or communal disturbances, for example. Second, the targets of terrorist violence are not necessarily the of speech victims of the violence, but rather the audiences to the violence. From this perspective, terrorism is a form of political communication rather than direct military action.
An important distinction here is that terrorism instrumentalises its victims. Unlike the actions of soldiers in war who seek to essay by robert wrigley, directly degrade the material ability of the enemy to continue fighting, the victims of terrorism are chosen instead for symbolic reasons. An important point here is that states which try to hide their involvement in civilian-directed violence may still be sending a powerful message to list of nursing thesis, the society or social groups they wish to intimidate. The use of by robert, disappearances as a strategy of terrorism for example, sends a message that the state is omnipotent, omnipresent and ruthless in rooting out opponents, as does kidnap and torture. In other cases, state terrorism may be both instrumental and direct: killing a union organiser for example, both weakens the essay on freedom union and sends a message to potential union leaders and the society they come from. Third, and related to the previous point, terrorism is intended to cause fear and intimidate. This is the central purpose of the violence and not just the unintended consequence, although it can be argued that there is a certain kind of intentionality when actors engage in actions they can be sure which will cause terror and essay wrigley intimidate, such as using airpower to bomb civilian areas. Moreover, the intention to cause fear can usually be deduced from the targets, context and salary foreseen consequences of the violence.
Bombs in public places or the widespread use of torture against regime opponents for example, are clearly intended to essay by robert, terrify the wider society. Lastly, terrorism is aimed primarily but not solely at thesis, civilians. Here I differ with some scholars in by robert, that I argue that it is short story essay often unhelpful to try and maintain civilian-military or combatant-non-combatant distinctions in conceptualising terrorism. I agree with Goodin in this regard that such distinctions can in fact, be counter-productive, as they allow actors to by robert, claim legitimacy for management, other forms of equally abhorrent violence. A violent campaign aimed at police officers or off-duty military personnel that was intended to cause fear and essay by robert wrigley intimidate the wider society or a certain section of moodle module, society for essay wrigley, example, would still constitute terrorism even though it avoided targeting civilians. Similarly, certain actions during war which were aimed solely at terrorising enemy soldiers and their civilian audience, rather than for military-strategic reasons, could also be considered terrorism. The use of writing, certain types of militarily ineffective but demoralising chemical weapons or the bombing of civilian areas in which there were no real strategic targets, for essay by robert wrigley, example, would qualify as terrorism. There are a number of clear advantages to employing such a conception of terrorism. In the first instance, it does not artificially and illogically limit the salary phenomenon by the nature of the actor (as some definitions do), but includes state terrorism, gender-based terrorism, and non-state terrorism. By Robert Wrigley? Second, it does not limit the analysis to peace, but also includes the thesis module behaviour of actors in war—the site of a great deal of concentrated political violence.
Lastly, as mentioned, it can be argued that there is already a consensus on these criteria among the leading terrorism scholars, as their definitions tend to incorporate all these elements. From this perspective, the main issue is not that we do not know what terrorism is or that we cannot clearly identify it; it is rather that the application of the definition is too often restricted—for whatever reason—to a narrow set of actors that most often happens to coincide with the current strategic interests of Western powers. During the cold war, most terrorism research focused on left-wing non-state groups; today, most terrorism research focuses on so-called Islamist terrorism. This inconsistent application both distorts the essay by robert focus of the field and undermines attempts to restrict and eliminate oppressive forms of political violence. Terrorism and Emancipation. In addition to its analytical advantages, the terrorism label could be employed as means to essay assignment, advancing a progressive political project aimed at protecting marginalised and vulnerable populations from indiscriminate and oppressive forms of violence. That is, at the most basic level, employing the above criteria can have the effect of de-legitimising any and all forms of violence that seek to essay, instrumentalise human suffering for the sole purpose of sending a message to an audience. Related to this, it also de-legitimises all forms of civilian-directed violence, including the direct targeting of civilians during war. Most importantly, however, this approach to terrorism brings back states as a subject for analysis and holds them accountable for actions that many recognise as terrorism but which are rarely acknowledged as terrorism, even by terrorism scholars.
This is a critical task, given that the known effects and consequences of state terrorism —in terms of deaths, human suffering and material, social and political destruction—are far more serious than non-state terrorism. In this sense, the identifying criteria described above functions to moodle, set the limits of legitimate state violence, despite the frequent attempt to wrigley, justify terroristic forms of violence by reference to doctrines of state sovereignty and the legitimate use of political violence. The criteria can also be used to chemistry marble chips coursework, scrutinise state practices during counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations to essay wrigley, ensure that they do not morph into terrorism themselves by failing to distinguish between the innocent and the guilty or being highly disproportionate, for on freedom of speech, example. Similarly, it can be used to evaluate state practices during times of war, identifying those occasions when military actions go beyond strategic necessity to the use of force for the purpose of intimidating and demoralising civilians. In short, these criteria provide a strict set of criteria for essay by robert wrigley, the evaluation of story, actions by any and all actors who are in conflict. As such, they have the potential to strengthen the norms relating to the limits of political violence, thereby improving human and by robert social security. Importantly, the broad social and academic consensus, as well as the relevant legal precepts, is already in place for of nursing thesis, proscribing and de-legitimising actions that fall within the categories of by robert, illegitimate, terrorist violence outlined above. However, in order to make this work in creative writing salary, everyday scholarly practice, I would argue that terrorism scholars in particular would need to adhere to a set of core ontological, methodological and normative commitments. These have been outlined in by robert, detail elsewhere, but would include, among others: · An acute sensitivity to the politics of labelling in the terrorism field and an acceptance of the insecure ontological status of the short essay assignment term; · Transparency about their own values and political standpoints, particularly as they relate to the geo-political interests of Western states; · A willingness to expand their focus of research to include the essay by robert use of terrorism by states, including Western states engaged in operations overseas; · Adherence to a set of responsible research ethics, including a commitment to refusing to cooperate with state counter-terrorism projects that include the moodle thesis module use of torture, illegal practices such as rendition or the victimising of whole suspect communities; · A commitment to normative values which reject any and all forms of civilian-directed violence and by robert wrigley which promotes a broad notion of chemistry marble coursework, human security. In particular, terrorism scholars must recognise the by robert cultural-political biases they hold and aim for consistency of application of the criteria set out. Specifically, they must demonstrate a willingness to scrutinise and condemn the actions and intentions of their own states when they cross the line into terrorism.
This is in fact, the biggest problem facing the field in this area. It is not that terrorism scholars do not recognise the use of module, terrorism by states; it is rather that they limit the wrigley focus of their research largely to non-state groups that are opposed to Western interests and fail to acknowledge the long history of of nursing thesis, involvement of their own states or allied states in terrorism. In this paper, I have attempted to demonstrate that even though terrorism is impossible to define and the study of terrorism is beset by some unhelpful biases and essay wrigley knowledge practices, it is both possible and necessary to retain the term as a focus for research. I have further suggested that as an analytical term, terrorism can potentially also play an important normative function. However, in order to realise this potential, terrorism scholars need to acknowledge and accept the ethico-political content of their subject and commit themselves to a number of transparent principles. The consequences of failing to do so are that the field remains unbalanced, politically biased and highly limited in its focus. More importantly, unless these imbalances are addressed, the field is in danger of reinforcing the view that terrorism is solely a problem of non-state groups and management research individuals, and that states are immune from condemnation or sustained scholarly analysis. As such, there is a danger that terrorism studies will continue to be seen by some as simply an essay wrigley, arm of the state security sector and a bastion of support for list of nursing thesis, the Global War on Terror.
Considering some of the morally questionable and counter-productive policies at the heart of current state security practices in the global counter-terrorism campaign—such as extraordinary rendition, the widespread use of by robert, torture, internment at Guantanamo Bay, pre-emptive war, extra-judicial killing of terrorist suspects, shoot-to-kill policies, intrusive surveillance, aid and support for authoritarian regimes and the like—this should sound a clarion call for concerted action to scholars in the field. About the Author: Richard Jackson is Reader in chemistry marble, International Politics at Aberystwyth University and the Founding Editor of the journal, Critical Studies on Terrorism . He gained his PhD from the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. His current research focuses on the discourses of terrorism and the development of 'critical terrorism studies'.  An earlier version of this paper was presented at the British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge.  Silke, A. (2004) 'The Road Less Travelled: Recent Trends in essay by robert wrigley, Terrorism Research', in A. Silke, (ed), Research on Terrorism: Trends, Achievements and Failures . London: Frank Cass, p. 207.  For an excellent overview of the main definitional approaches in moodle, the field, see Raphael, S. (2007) 'Putting the State Back In: The Orthodox Definition of Terrorism and the Critical Need to Address State Terrorism', Paper Prepared for British International Studies Association (BISA) Annual Conference, 17-19 December, 2007, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, available online at: http://www.bisa.ac.uk/2007/tuesday.htm.  Tilly, C. (2004) 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', Sociological Theory , vol. 22, no. 1, p. 6; Schmid, A. By Robert Wrigley? (2004) 'Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and Political Violence , vol. 16, no.
2, p. Essay On Freedom Of Speech? 199.  Tilly, 'Terror, Terrorism, Terrorists', p. 5.  Hoffman, B. (1998) Inside Terrorism , New York: Columbia University Press, p.43.  Emphasis added. Quoted in Martin, G. (2003) Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues , Thousand Oaks: Sage, p. Essay Wrigley? 33.  See Raphael, 'Putting the State Back In'.  Richardson, L., quoted in Taylor, M. and Horgan, J. (eds) (2000) The Future of Terrorism London: Frank Cass.  I explore this problem in Jackson, R. (2007) 'Critical Reflection on of nursing thesis, Counter-sanctuary Discourse', in Michael Innes, (ed), Denial of Sanctuary: Understanding Terrorist Safe Havens , Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.  Silke, 'The Road Less Travelled', p. 206.  Quoted in Goodin, R. Essay? (2006) What's Wrong with Terrorism? Cambridge: Polity Press 2006, p. 55.  Laqueur, W. (1977), Terrorism . London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. Creative Writing Consultant Salary? 6.  Western state terrorism is discussed in by robert wrigley, more detail in Jackson, 'Critical Reflection on creative writing consultant, Counter-sanctuary Discourse'.
 See for example, George, A. Essay? (1991), Western State Terrorism , Cambridge: Polity Press; Herman, E. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda , South End Press.  In any case, it can be argued that states who employ terror as a mode of thesis module, governance lack legitimacy.  Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , pp. By Robert? 50-77.  See Rummel, R. (1994) Death by Government . Somerset, NJ: Transaction Books; see also Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? , p. List? 67).
 The former British ambassador to Uzbekistan reveals the nature and extent of Uzbek state terror and Western complicity in Craig Murray, Murder in Samarkland: A British Ambassador's Controversial Defiance of Tyranny in by robert wrigley, the War on marble chips coursework, Terror (Mainstream Publishing, 2006). This is not to say that there are no scholars who examine state terrorism, simply that they are few and far between and tend to exist on the margins of or even outside of the wrigley main field. There has been some outstanding research on state terrorism, including: Sluka, J. (ed.), (2000), Death Squad: An Anthropology of State Terror (Penn: University of Pennsylvania Press); Stohl, M. and Lopez, G. (eds.) (1986), Government Violence and Repression: An Agenda for Research , ed. Bernard Johnpoll, Contributions in thesis, Political Science, New York: Greenwood; Gareau, F. (2004), State Terrorism and the United States: From Counterinsurgency to the War on Terrorism , London: Zed Books; and Grosscup, B. (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of Aerial Bombardment . Essay Wrigley? London: Zed Books. Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 52.  On the issue of terrorism during war, an excellent example is Grosscup, B. (2006) Strategic Terror: The Politics and Ethics of Aerial Bombardment . London: Zed Books. Grosscup provides a thoroughly convincing and eloquent argument about why the doctrine and chemistry marble chips coursework practice of strategic bombing constitutes a form of state terrorism – not least because its original formulation was as ' terror bombing' aimed at civilians and intended 'to create such terror, destruction and misery as to essay by robert wrigley, undermine civilians' morale and in swift order break their fragile will to resist' (p. 24). He goes on to document the use of 'terror bombing' against chemistry marble civilian populations in numerous European colonies, in the Spanish Civil War and during World War II, and then in its new formulation as 'strategic bombing' in essay, numerous conflicts since such as Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, Lebanon, Chechnya, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. Furthermore, Grosscup demonstrates that the two most common justifications for strategic bombing – that unlike non-state terrorism it does not deliberately target civilians and that when large numbers of essay, civilians are killed it is not intentional – are in wrigley, fact, highly specious (p. 179).
 Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? pp. 69-73.  Schmid, A. and A. Jongman, (1988) Political Terrorism: A New Guide to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Databases, Theories and Literature , Oxford: North Holland, p. 101.  See Zulaika, J. and W. Chemistry Marble? Douglass, (1996) Terror and Taboo: The Follies, Fables, and Faces of Terrorism , London: Routledge; Jackson, R. (2005). Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics and Counterterrorism , Manchester: Manchester University Press; Jackson, R. (2007) 'Constructing Enemies: Islamic Terrorism in Political and Academic Discourse', Government Opposition , vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 394-426; Winkler, C. (2006) In the wrigley Name of Terrorism: Presidents on Political Violence in the Post-World War II Era , Albany, NY, State University of New York Press; Collins, J. and Glover, R. (eds.) (2002) Collateral Language: A User's Guide to America's New War (New York University Press, 2002); and short story essay Croft, S. (2006) Culture, Crisis and America's War on Terror , Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
 See Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and by robert wrigley Taboo .  Livingston, S. (1994) The Terrorism Spectacle , Boulder, CO: Westview Press. [29 ]Sluka, J. (2002) 'Comment: What Anthropologists should know about the thesis module Concept of Terrorism', Anthropology Today , vol. 18, no. 2, p. 23.  Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo , p. By Robert? x.  Schmid, A. (2004) 'Frameworks for Conceptualising Terrorism', Terrorism and chemistry chips Political Violence , vol.
16, no. 2, p. 205.  See Zulaika and Douglass, Terror and Taboo .  This point was made to me in by robert, conversation with Ken Booth, Aberystwyth University.  See Sluka, 'Introduction'.  Goodin, What's Wrong With Terrorism? p. 15.
 See Sharlach, L. (forthcoming) 'Veil and Four Walls: A State of Terror in on freedom, Pakistan', Critical Studies on Terrorism , vol. 1, no. 1.  See Jackson, R. (2007) 'The Core Commitments of Critical Terrorism Studies', European Political Sci ence, 6(3), 244-51. ENHANCING SECURITY THROUGH COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH. Perspectives on Terrorism is wrigley a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies.