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book report 47 ronin CHÛSHINGURA IN THE 1980S. Henry D. Smith II. Development Essay? Prepared for the Modern Japan Seminar, Columbia University, April 13, 1990. Please do not cite or reproduce without permission. Copyright 1990 Henry D. Smith II. All rights reserved. My curiosity about Chûshingura was first piqued in December 1981, by a remark of Tsurumi Shunsuke at a conference in London to the effect that if you study Chûshingura long enough, you will understand everything about the Japanese. Chemistry Coursework? My respect for Tsurumi as a pioneer scholar of modern Japanese popular culture helped convince me that perhaps I should some day learn more about what I had always felt to be a distasteful chapter in development college essay, Japanese cultural history. Marble Coursework? For myself, whose acquaintance with Japan began only in rural essay, 1962 (the year of the last full-scale feature film production of Chûshingura and assignment do my coursework, the end of an era in the mass popularity of the legend), Chûshingura was a thing of the rural development past, indelibly linked with feudal values and prewar militarism. Of course, I loved the original joruri version of Kanadehon Chûshingura as I knew it through Donald Keene's translation, which I had used in undergraduate courses, but that seemed something apart from the larger and vaguer Chûshingura that I associated with prewar Japan. The chance to rethink the story of the 47 Ronin came last year, when I had the prospect of teaching a graduate seminar at Columbia that I knew would include students in for me do my, both history and literature, both modern and premodern: Chûshingura seemed a good way to bring these various interests into common focus.
This report stems from that seminar, and college, I am indebted in countless ways to the six graduate students who helped me work through some of the chemistry coursework issues treated in this paper--as well as many other issues that I will not have space to mention. (1) As part of college, my preparations for the seminar, I stopped by chemistry marble chips coursework Kinokuniya bookstore in Shinjuku during a trip to Japan last summer, looking for essay recent writings about Chûshingura. I discovered not just one book or two, as I had expected, but a dozen and more volumes on change Chûshingura, all of them recent. Most were non-fiction (it was, after all, the history section), but some were novels. And of course Kinokuniya did not have everything: in the 1980s alone, I would now estimate, about rural essay, forty new books on Chûshingura appeared, both fiction and non-fiction (see Appendix for a list of thirty). What was going on? Why this number and variety of books on marble chips what I considered to be safely history? Some of the books of course purported to be real history, revealing the truth of the original Akô Incident, but a number were historical fiction, while still others analyzed the meaning of Chûshingura in Japanese culture as a whole. Somehow I had not expected much vitality from Chûshingura in the 1980s. As it turns out, the legend seems to rural college, remain as durable and versatile as ever, and it remains quite simply the write studies research most widely known and rural development college, frequently re-presented story in write research paper, Japan. It seems a good time to try to place the entire phenomenon of Chûshingura in broader historical perspective. A good place to start is with the question posed by the title of the single most provocative book of the 1980's, Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? (Chûshingura to wa nanika, 1984).
I have more simple-minded intentions than Maruya (to whose ideas I shall return at the end of this report) in posing this preliminary question. It is simply a problem of definition: to what do we refer today when we use the term Chûshingura? Stop and ask yourself the same question, or better yet, ask it of any Japanese who (like most) has never considered the matter. The inevitable hesitation will bring home the dimensions of the rural development essay problem: what in fact do we mean by marble chips Chûshingura? The actual word, of course, comes from the joruri Kanadehon Chûshingura of development essay, 1748, and purists continue to use it in this restricted way. (2) In actual usage, however, the term has been constantly expanding over the years. In the late Edo period, it came to be used in the titles of variant kabuki versions of the story, and increasingly so in Meiji.
In late Meiji, as we shall see, there occurred a radical conflation of the mythology essay a hero previous genealogy of the Akô Incident, by which not only the different lineages of stage and story-telling, but also the rural development college historical incident itself , were all gathered within Chûshingura as an umbrella term. Ultimately, the only sensible definition of Chûshingura is as an all-encompassing term for the entire body of short, cultural production that ultimately stems from the Akô Incident of 1701-03. All parts of this body have in common an intention either to tell the development college story, or to attempt to explain its telling--which becomes simply one more form of re-telling. In this sense, I am merely adding to the vast thing that is Chûshingura in producing this paper. Dealing with Chûshingura is somewhat like dealing with the Tar Baby: when you try to stand apart and assault it, you willy-nilly become part of it. This is precisely why Chûshingura is so tantalizing, and essay rainy day kids, ultimately so frustrating for development college the historian. Conflict Management Research? Let me nevertheless make my own effort to stand apart, and to see Chûshingura as something that does in fact have a history--a history in rural development college, which the very notion of management research papers, history performs a central function. In so doing, I have ended up strongly opposed to precisely what lured me to the topic in the first place, Tsurumi's proposal that Chûshingura has come to encompass all of the college cultural proclivities of the Japanese people. This type of short, argument is essentially a type of Japanese exceptionalism, whether claiming that Chûshingura must be understood as part of the basic Japanese preference for failed heroes ( hangan biiki ), or in terms of the Japanese tendency to rural college essay, act in groups, or as a reflection of the hierarchal organization of Japanese society--and so on. Of course it is all this, in varying degrees, but such an approach begs the question of Chûshingura's durability, since various other legends that are in these obvious ways Japanese have come and do my assignment, gone.
I propose, then, that the popularity and durability of Chûshingura deserve historical rather than cultural explanations, and that all those who interpret it as a peculiarly Japanese phenomenon are misleading us. The power of Chûshingura can ultimately be explained, I would argue, only by the particular nature of the original historical incident of 1701-03, and by rural college the particular historical circumstances through which its retelling has evolved in the almost two centuries since. Rather than universally Japanese, I would argue, Chûshingura is particularly historical. The problem begins with giving a name to the incident that began it all. In Edo times, no one would have called it an incident, but would have referred to the forty-six--or forty-seven--samurai or the Akô gishi (or gijin). In Meiji times, it became more common to call it the Genroku incident. Among historians today, however, consensus seems to favor Akô incident, avoiding the problems of chips, whether Terasaka Kichiemon really should be counted as one of the rural development college group, or whether the Akô retainers were in management research, fact righteous, or whether all Genroku need be subsumed by development college essay the affair. (3) A quick reminder of the essentials of the incident, or rather of the series of incidents involved in conflict management research, the Akô affair: it began on the 14th day of the Third Month of Genroku 14 [April 21, 1701], when the rural development college lord of Akô, Asano Naganori, drew his sword in a corridor of Edo Castle and slashed at the senior bakufu protocol official, Kira Yoshinaka. (4) It was the last day of the visit to Edo of envoys from the imperial court in Kyoto, whose reception had been placed in the hands of Asano and mythology over a hero dad, another daimyo. Asano only wounded Kira slightly before he was restrained, and was immediately taken into custody and ordered to commit seppuku later the college same day. Twenty-one months later, forty-seven of the over a hero former retainers of Asano, having signed an rural development, oath vowing to complete the deed at footer which their lord had failed, attacked the Edo mansion of Kira, took his head, and marched across the city to the temple of Sengakuji, where they offered the development trophy before the grave of write cultural studies research, their master. After fully seven weeks of debate, the bakufu ordered the seppuku of the forty-six of the ronin who had surrendered themselves at Sengakuji.
The order was carried out the same day, on Genroku 16/2/2 [March 20, 1703], and the ashes of the ronin were interred at Sengakuji. The power of survival of the rural essay Akô Incident in later imagination lies less in the drama implicit in this outline sketch than in the complexity and ambiguity of motivation involved both in the initial palace incident and in the night attack. The historical record, for example, does not explain why Asano attacked Kira in the first place, only that he cried as he struck, This is for that grudge I've had against you! (Kono aida no ikon oboetaru ka). This obscurity of motive, and the rather limited and contradictory information that we have about the personalities of the two men involved, have made it possible to engage in a wide range of speculation, particularly among amateur historians. To be sure, the traditional type of explanation, that Kira had offended Asano by haughty behavior of some sort, remains the most plausible. A Hero And My? Still, there is no hard evidence for it, and the fact that the development college essay ronin in their voluminous correspondence never touched on the reason for Asano's grudge suggests that even they did not really know. Essay? The even greater ambiguity lies in the motivation and action of the rural development essay ronin.
They justified the attack as a vendetta ( katakiuchi ) on behalf of their lord, but in no way did the case fit either the legal or the customary definition of katakiuchi . Kira, after all, was not their master's murderer: on the contrary, Asano had tried to murder Kira. Nor was there any justification for avenging the death of one's lord, only that of conflict papers, a family member: the rural development college ronin even had to call on a Confucian scholar to come up with a textual basis for their action. Legalities aside, what was the underlying spirit of cultural, their act? Was it indeed personal loyalty to rural essay, their lord, as the mainstream of the Chûshingura tradition would have it? Or was it a protest against the bakufu's lenient treatment of change thesis, Kira for development college his involvement in conflict papers, the incident? Or was it a simple matter of essay, personal honor to carry out their master's unfinished task? Or, as one school of interpretation would have it, were they impoverished samurai desperate for a new job and trying to prove their credentials? Whatever the truth of the matter, the over a hero dad ambiguities and complexities of the event itself provided plenty of leeway for college a variety of rainy, widely differing interpretations. This would prove essential to the modern survival of development college essay, Chûshingura. The Popular Response: Kanadehon Chûshingura. The nature of the immediate public response to studies research, the attack on Kira also presents difficult interpretive problems.
Consider what our own basic texts tell us: that the public was thrilled, (5) and that there was a spontaneous outpouring of admiration for this brave and selfless act. (6) Within Edo, of course, the news must have traveled swiftly, and public interest was surely high, but was there mass public sympathy for the act? One member of the seminar attempted to look at the contemporary documentation of the incident, and found it to be a mass of contradictory and ambiguous evidence. (7) It is difficult to say whether the public was either thrilled or shocked: given the divisions that would soon emerge among samurai leaders on this issue, it seems at college least reasonable to question the chips coursework assumption that the public response was uniformly positive. Interesting new evidence on this score has recently been offered by Kôsaka Jirô in his best-selling book on the diary of rural, a Nagoya samurai in the Genroku era. The diarist, Asahi Bunzaemon, was alert to every bit of gossip that passed his way, and he reported such incidents as love suicides in long and consuming detail. The vendetta of the do my do my coursework for me Akô ronin, however, was reported in one utterly non-committal line, and their seppuku was not even mentioned. Kôsaka suggests that if the development incident had been such a big stir in Edo, Bunzaemon would clearly have heard much more about it through his many sources and essay over and my dad, would have reported it in greater detail. (8) The conventional evidence of development essay, public interest that has been cited in the past is a kabuki performance in chips coursework, Edo just twelve days after the seppuku of the ronin, which was ostensibly about the development Soga brothers but clearly modelled on the Akô Incident.
The evidence for this and mythology essay over a hero dad, another account of rural development, early theatrical reenactments in Edo, however, is highly problematic and now discredited by many scholars. (9) It was rather in Kyoto and Osaka that one finds the more sustained response. Of course, the stricter censorship in Edo is cultural studies paper doubtless the key factor, but it remains a fact that the Chûshingura legend was created in Kamigata, where it was easier to college, fantasize about the historical event. Particular revealing is the footer earliest known piece of rural college essay, fiction based on the incident, an ukiyozôshi of 1705 entitled Keisei budôzakura , by the prolific Osaka writer Nishizawa Ippû. (10) The entire incident is cultural studies research paper transposed to the pleasure quarters, with Asano (Asamanosuke) as a chonin playboy skilled in the martial arts and Kira (Kichikô) as the pompous son of a nouveau riche merchant. The two conflict over a rivalry for the affections of the courtesan Kurahashi, and it is actually Kichikô who attacks Asamanosuke, reversing the historical order of essay, aggression. Both are wounded, but Asamanosuke dies. The revenge is plotted by Densuke, a follower of chemistry chips coursework, Asamanosuke, in cahoots with Kurahashi and a band of other courtesans whom Asamanosuke had favored when alive. Rural College Essay? Densuke and fourteen courtesans attack Kichikô when he lets down his guard and visits the pleasure quarters, and then all commit suicide before Asama's grave.
Nowhere to short rainy, be found in all of this is rural development any trace of interest in samurai valor or loyalty: the real point of the story, argued Aoki Sentei, lay in the contrast of the sui style of Asama and the stingy, boorish style of Kichikô. We are already at write cultural studies paper a long parodic remove from the event. The subsequent road to rural development college essay, Kanadehon Chûshingura of 1748 has been carefully traced by scholars of Edo theater. (11) The pivotal year, it is now agreed, was 1710, the year after Tsunayoshi's death, when there appeared a cluster of plays that drew on the Akô Incident in elaborate and marble coursework, only thinly disguised detail. Rural Development Essay? Other plays followed over write cultural research, the succeeding decades. Rural Essay? Had it not been for the masterful work of synthesis performed by the team that wrote Kanadehon Chûshingura , however, one wonders whether the Akô vendetta would have survived as any more than one of many lesser themes in change thesis, the joruri and kabuki traditions. Rural College Essay? Not only did Kanadehon Chûshingura provide the word Chûshingura, but its tremendous popularity assured that the theme would be imitated on a far more extended and imaginative scale than ever before. Footer? Fujino Yoshio has compiled a list of 70 such dramatic variants of the legend from 1748 until mid-Meiji. (12) Certain interesting trends appear from this data. First, the overwhelming number of new productions until the mid-1810s were created in Kamigata: 24 in Osaka and 4 in Kyoto, versus only 6 in development college, Edo. In this same period, the marble chips number of development, joruri (15) remained about the same as kabuki (19). After this, however, the pattern is reversed, with 30 new works in write studies research paper, Edo-Tokyo in the period 1818-1892, and only 6 in Osaka; of these, only college one was joruri. As a growing tradition, in other words, one sees a clear shift from Osaka, where Chûshingura originated, to Edo-Tokyo.
It seems possible that this shift from west to east was paralleled by a change of emphasis within the tradition as a whole, from the over a hero erotic to the political. The theme of loyalty with which Kanadehon Chûshingura opens and closes, one might argue, is merely a veneer to make the rural college essay authorities happy, and chemistry chips, serves to divert attention from the real concerns of the Kamigata audiences, the erotic and development essay, romantic themes that run throughout the play. In Edo-Tokyo, by contrast, with its greater traditional emphasis on formalism and on the macho bluster of the aragoto style, the theme of loyalty and political struggle is for me do my for me taken more seriously. It is revealing, for example, that in Kamigata performances, Kô no Moronao is depicted as above all lascivious, while Tokyo actors emphasize rather his haughtiness towards subordinates. (13) Given the richness and complexity of the original joruri text, it is in fact possible to get quite different emphases from the play. Rural Development College Essay? Even in Edo, however, Chûshingura was not always taken seriously, as demonstrated by the rich parodic tradition that emerged in the later eighteenth century. The earliest of these appears to be Hoseidô Kisanji's kibyôshi parody of 1779, Anadehon tsûjingura (roughly, A Treasury of Those In the Know, A Guide to management research, the Pitfalls of Life). (14) In the preface, Kisanji writes that the loyalty of Ôboshi and the others was grand, but the real cause of the whole affair was En'ya Hangan's utter lack of sophistication ( tsû ) in failing to realize that his bribe was too small. Thus having subverted the basic moral order of Chûshingura, Kisanji proceeds to rural development college essay, his own version, in which everyone is utterly preoccupied with worldliness and with whether others are being too stingy or not. This was followed by numerous other kibyôshi parodies, as well as such similar subversions of the legend as Shikitei Sanba's Chûshingura Henchikiron (1812), a perverse argument that diametrically opposes the received wisdom on Chûshingura, and Tsuruya Nanboku's kabuki Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan (1825), a tale of one of the disloyal retainers who did not participate in the vendetta. The Popular Response: The Kôdan Retellings. The late Edo period meanwhile saw the change development of a new and rather different lineage of rural essay, Chûshingura, in the genre of oral story-telling known as kôshaku (later kôdan ) that flourished on well into the Meiji period. Although these variants derived in many ways from the stage traditions, they differed in rainy day kids, claiming to be real stories of real people, so-called jitsuroku , and hence used the actual names of the historical participants in the Akô Incident, rather than the pseudonyms of Kanadehon Chûshingura . As analyzed by development essay Satô Tadao, the kôdan versions tended to emphasize the impetuous, heroic male aspects of the legend, minimizing the romantic and domestic complications that were an important part of joruri and kabuki.
Thus the kôdan versions almost completely omit the story of the romance of Kanpei and Okaru that came to be so popular in research, the kabuki tradition. Satô sees in this a contrast in the social class of the audiences, with kabuki appealing to upper-class merchants firmly embedded in the feudal social order, and rural, kôdan to lower-class artisans who live by their individual skills. (15) Another feature of the kôdan version was the elaboration of the heroic exploits of individual members of the band of forty-seven, thus developing the genre of gishi meimeiden , separate biographies of the loyal retainers. Do My Assignment Do My? This feature reminds us how important it was that such a large number of individuals were involved in the historical Akô Incident--far more than had been involved in almost any of the other great vendettas in Japanese history. Rural Development College? Some have interpreted this as a mark of essay over, group-oriented behavior, but it is revealing that in the kôdan tradition it allowed rather for the proliferation of individualistic heroes, each with his own story. (16) In a sense, this division replicates the basic tension in rural development essay, the history of samurai values, between self-centered honor and change, self-negating loyalty. In the Meiji period, the rural college essay kôdan versions--known by such titles as The 47 Samurai of Akô (Akô shijûshichi-shi) or Biographies of the Loyal Retainers (Gishiden)--were carried over into the genre of rôkyoku ( naniwa-bushi ), which began in Osaka in the late Edo period and in which oral narration was provided with samisen accompaniment.
The great popularity of the rôkyoku version of the Akô gishi in the late Meiji period, emerging directly from the kôdan tradition, provided the matrix for the modern emergence of Chûshingura as a cornerstone of emperor-system patriotism. Write Cultural Studies Research? The Revival of History and the Meiji Synthesis. For the first half of the Meiji period, Chûshingura survived with no major change in rural development college, the two great Edo-period lineages of management papers, kabuki stage productions and kôdan story-telling. To be sure, the new regime seems to have appreciated the rural essay political uses of the 47 Ronin as early as 1868, when the Meiji emperor, not long after arriving in his new capital of Tokyo, sent an change, emissary to rural development college, Sengakuji to place offerings before the graves of the Akô ronin, together with a proclamation addressed to Ôishi and praising him for upholding the principle of the master-follower bond. Yet this did not lead to any particular official manipulation of the legend to foster imperial loyalty: Chûshingura remained in the possession of the people. The modern transformation of chemistry coursework, Chûshingura into what amounted to rural development college, a piece of propaganda on behalf of write studies research, martial values and selfless sacrifice to the state came, revealingly, only college after the way had been paved by the first modern historical studies of the Akô incident. (17) This process began in 1889 with the appearance of The True Story of the Akô Gishi (Akô gishi jitsuwa), an account by Shigeno Yasutsugu (1827-1910), a pioneer of the modern critical method in history.
Shigeno insisted on the need to separate out the many counterfeits among the surviving documents of the incident, in an effort to tell the short day kids true story. The form of the book (which was related orally to a newspaper reporter) was an act-by-act analysis of Kanadehon Chûshingura , indicating what was true and what not. This marks the beginning of a new element in the Chûshingura phenomenon, the perception that the development college historical event constituted a different kind of studies, story to be told, with different tools and methods. The way to a greater historicity may have been paved by the kôdan tradition and its stronger sense of the actual event--particularly in the use of the historical names of the participants--but the line between history and fiction remained one that was never openly contested. The pivotal work in the modernization of Chûshingura was Fukumoto Nichinan's Genroku kaikyo roku (Record of the Valiant Vendetta of Genroku), published in late 1909. The use of the word Genroku signals Nichinan's consciousness of the historical event, and his work continued the spirit established by Shigeno of trying to recover the original story. Development College Essay? Still, Nichinan was a journalist not a historian, and essay, still retained many elements of traditional kôdan-style embellishment.
Less than a year after the publication of Genroku kaikyo roku , however, the college essay historiography of the Akô Incident entered a new era with the publication of the essay rainy day kids documentary collection Akô gijin sansho (3 vols.), which had first been assembled by Nabeta Shôsan, a samurai antiquarian from Iwaki in the late Edo period. Impressed by rural development college essay the need to establish his story on a firmer documentary basis, Nichinan rewrote his earlier version and do my coursework for me, published it in development, 1914 as Record of the Truth of the Valiant Vendetta of mythology over a hero and my dad, Genroku (Genroku kaikyo shinsô roku). Although a less readable work, the effort to reach the truth of the event marks an entirely new attitude towards the Chûshingura legacy. Nichinan's two works, especially the first, were wildly popular in the patriotic climate of Japan following the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05, and lay the foundations for the understanding of the story as one of martial valor and devotion to superiors. Although more conscious of the truth of the historical incident, Nichinan in no way compromised the rural development essential emphasis on loyalty and valor. In this way, a more modern consciousness of the history of the conflict papers Akô Incident was fused with the development essay latent historicity of the kôdan tradition to yield a new rendering of the Chûshingura tradition, one particularly well suited to marble coursework, the times. The importance of historicity is revealed in comparing the fate of rural development, Chûshingura with that of the legend of the vendetta of the Soga brothers, which was a far longer and deeper tradition in many ways than Chûshingura, but which did not survive as a major theme in popular culture after the end of conflict management research papers, Meiji. The great liability of the Soga brothers is that they were almost impossible to recover for history, dating from a much earlier period and with virtually no documentary support. The late Meiji period also marks the beginning of the entirely new Chûshingura genre of film, which by the time it had run its course in the mid-1960s would have brought the story of the 47 Ronin to far more Japanese than ever in development essay, the past, and with a new level of power and immediacy.
The film historian Misono Kyôhei has counted a total of sixty Chûshingura films in late Meiji and Taisho (1907-26), an average of three per year. (18) . The number would rapidly multiply in the years that followed. In general, the film tradition followed in the pattern set by the kôdan-rôkyoku tradition, of treating the Akô incident as a historical event rather than using the Taiheiki sekai of the stage tradition. The mounting nationalism of the 1930s tended to leave the mainstream of Chûshingura locked into the mode that took shape in the 1910s, although some literary efforts subversive of that mainstream were already beginning to emerge among a small minority of intellectual writers, as we shall shortly see. The mainstream itself took a turn in a more intellectual direction with the epic new kabuki version of Mayama Seika, Genroku Chûshingura , begun in 1934 as a piece for Sadanji II, and continuing through nine more installments until 1941 (by which time Sadanji had died). Short Essay Day Kids? Mayama's pretensions as a historian are evident in the long and rural development, pedantic explanations he provides in the printed text, alleging his concern for period correctness.
Yet his work is every bit as much a product of the ideology of thesis footer, its own time, notably in his depiction of the anxiety of Ôishi over whether Asano's act might be interpreted as insulting to the emperor; this introduction of imperial loyalism into the minds of the rural college essay 47 Ronin seems to be Mayama's innovation, with no historical justification. (19) The war interrupted the modern film mainstream of Chûshingura, but did not radically alter its course. Both stage and film versions of the story were prohibited under the conflict research early years of the Occupation for intimate associations with feudal values and wartime patriotism. From 1949, however, the ban on Chûshingura was lifted, and productions of rural development, both kabuki and film proceeded apace. This is by no means to say that the short day kids ideological emphasis remained unchanged. Gregory Barrett has suggested that the major shift was to rural college essay, play down the emphasis on abject loyalty to one's superior, and rather to stress Ôishi Kuranosuke's personal affection for his lord. (20) In a sense, the abstraction of loyalty that had allowed its modern transference from daimyo to change thesis footer, emperor now reverted to a more direct and personal sort of loyalty. But the theme of loyalty itself remained central. The postwar survival of Chûshingura, however, was not simply a product of this kind of rural development college essay, re-direction. As Satô Tadao notes, Chûshingura was the only one of the Three Great Vendettas of the mythology essay a hero dad Edo period that did in fact survive the war: nothing more was to be seen of the Soga Brothers or Araki Bunzaemon, names that are today virtually unknown to the majority of Japanese. Development? (21) The advantage of Chûshingura lay once again in the ambiguities and complexities offered by cultural studies research the historical incident itself. From even before the war, Chûshingura had already entered a second phase of modernization, one which endowed it with distinctively anti-authoritarian overtones.
The Democratization of rural development college essay, Chûshingura. In its very essence, the Akô Incident was politically multivalent. Although carried out in the name of management research, loyalty to their feudal lord, the vendetta of the 47 Ronin was explicitly in rural development college, defiance of the change thesis bakufu, as recognized by their death sentence. Rural Development Essay? Given the essentially contradictory demands of loyalty under the bakuhan system, their action could be interpreted in two wholly different ways, either as confirming loyalty in the abstract or as negating loyalty not directed to the shogunate. Where the notion of public hung in the balance between bakufu and han, things could go either way. And so in the twentieth century, when public was again defined in ambiguous ways, either as personal loyalty to the emperor or as abstract loyalty to the state, the Akô Incident was perfectly placed to satisfy both. And even after the democratizing reforms of the Occupation period, the Akô story could still be reoriented to adapt to new times, by conceiving of the chips actions of the ronin as directed against the autocratic actions of the bakufu. This new democratic phase in the history of Chûshingura actually had its beginnings before the war, among the liberal and modernist intellectuals of the rural development essay Taisho and early Showa era. The earliest sign was perhaps Akutagawa Ryûnosuke's short story One Day in coursework, the Life of Ôishi Kuranosuke (Aru hi no Ôishi Kuranosuke, Chûô kôron , Oct. Rural? 1917), a sketch of the leader of the 47 Ronin as he awaited the judgment of the bakufu following the vendetta. (22) It was modern in two senses. First, Akutagawa turned to the primary sources of the historical incident, in particular the account of chemistry chips, Horikawa Den'emon, who was in charge of guarding the group at the Hosokawa mansion in which Ôishi had been placed.
Secondly, Akutagawa was interested in the human psychology of Ôishi as an individual with both strengths and weaknesses, rather than the stereotypical hero that had appeared in all earlier renditions. This interest in probing the more complex and essay, human side of the participants in coursework for me, the Akô affair set into rural college, motion a strand of Chûshingura rendition that remains strong to this day. The modern turn also took a radical twist in the early Showa period with the short first appearance of interpretations that openly challenged the black-and-white idealism of the development essay older Chûshingura tradition. First seems to have been a March 1928 essay by Hani Gorô seeking to reevaluate Ôishi, but I have not yet located a copy. (23) Another materialist interpretation of the motives of the 47 Ronin was put forth first in May 1931, in a Chûô kôron article by the liberal Hasegawa Nyozekan entitled The Akô Gishi in Light of Historical Materialism, in which the motives of the ronin in seeking revenge were attributed not to their loyalty but to cultural, their poverty and need for a new job. A similar line of thought was pursued by the Marxist historian Tamura Eitarô in a series of books and articles on the Akô event extending from Chûshingura monogatari in development college essay, 1934 on to Akô rôshi in mythology over and my, 1964.
Doggedly pressing his argument that the ronin were simply in search of rural development, a new master and never expected to sacrifice their lives, Tamura set a tone of iconoclasm that opened a new chapter of revisionist thinking in the history of the Akô Incident. To be sure, there had been distinguished earlier critics of the ronin's actions, such as Satô Naokata two years after the event and Fukuzawa Yukichi in the Meiji period, but these had been in largely legal grounds. Short Essay Day Kids? Tamura was the college first to impute economic motives. Cultural Studies Research Paper? The most important work for the postwar revival of Chûshingura, however, was the rural college first long modern historical novel on rainy day kids the theme of the Akô Incident, Osaragi Jirô's Akô rôshi of 1928 (serialized the development college previous year in the Mainichi newspapers). The use of rôshi rather than gishi hints at the diversion of emphasis away from the theme of mythology a hero, loyalty, and in the direction of development college essay, a conception of the attack on Kira as a protest against the corrupt and marble coursework, venal government of the bakufu under Tsunayoshi. This element was in fact already part of prewar orthodoxy. The biography of Ôishi that appeared in the old elementary school textbooks, for rural college essay example, opened on essay and my dad precisely this theme, stressing the looseness of Genroku politics and the decadence of Tsunayoshi and his animal-protection laws. (24) The rônin could thus easily be resurrected after the war as paragons not of loyalty, but of justice and honesty in politics. Osaragi's text played a key role in the 1960s transition from film to rural college essay, television as the basic medium for the mass propagation of Chûshingura.
The year 1962 saw the last great feature-film production, Inagaki Hiroshi's Chûshingura , bringing to a close a half-century era. The new era began in 1964, when NHK chose the Chûshingura theme for the second of its year-long saga-dramas ( taiga dorama ), of which a one-hour installment was shown every Sunday evening. Entitled Akô rôshi , it was based in mythology and my, Osaragi's 1927 novel. Rural Development College Essay? The power of television, authorized by studies paper the government network, brought the images of the 47 Ronin directly into the homes of millions of Japanese over a sustained period of time, reviving the legend just at the point that it was faltering. The production was accompanied by a new outpouring of books about the Akô Incident. It is surely not without significance that 1964 was also the year of the Tokyo Olympics: the triumphal return to rural development, the international scene of a democratized Japan was accompanied by a revival of the nation's greatest legend, now itself democratized. In the years following, NHK has continued to play the central role in the survival of Chûshingura in mass culture by selecting it twice more for the taiga dorama series, in 1975 and 1982. In both cases, it was occasion for footer the publication of new books about development, Chûshingura, the reissue of old ones, and change, renewed speculation by intellectuals about the perpetual appeal of the theme to the Japanese people.
That things were changing, however, was revealed in rural essay, the approaches of the two series, neither of which approached the write studies Akô Incident head-on. The 1975 drama was Genroku Taiheiki , a title that revealingly suggests a return to the indirection of Kanadehon Chûshingura , which used the world of the Taiheiki as a setting. The series offered a panorama of Genroku society and politics that included the Akô Incident, but focused as much on Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu, chamberlain under Tsunayoshi, and on the politics of shogunal succession. The 1982 NHK series was given the development college abstruse title Tôge no gunzô , translatable as something like group portrait at the divide, implying that the Genroku period was a kind of historical watershed. The Akô Incident here appeared less as the main theme than as the backdrop to the depiction of the lives of a group of ordinary citizens of Edo. According to the analysis of Gregory Barrett, sentimentality was used to fashion a contemporary message of patriotism through the treatment everyone receives, as reflected in the lenient treatment of cultural studies, Kira, of the Akô retainers who were not loyal, and even of the notorious shogun Tsunayoshi himself. Thus, Barrett argues, NHK's Chûshingura bears a remarkable resemblance to the Japanese family drama in rural development college essay, which no one is to blame for arguments resulting from misunderstandings that are ironed out in the final reconciliation scene. (25) By this process of watering down and deflection of emphasis away from the theme of either loyalty or protest, the Chûshingura legend has been further adapted to postwar needs. The kind of lenient treatment of short day kids, old villains that Barrett detects in the 1982 NHK series, however, reflects more than just a pious wish to show Japan as one big happy family.
Rather it emerges from an on-going process of critically reexamining the legend and essay, challenging some of its central verities by turning back to the historical event. In a sense, this is in do my assignment coursework, the spirit of discovering the real Akô Incident pioneered earlier in the century by Fukumoto Nichinan, and carried forth in a more explicit mode of debunking by essay Tamura Eitarô in his argument of the 1930s that the Akô vendetta was no more than a campaign to win new employment. What has changed since the war is a widening of the field of debunking activity, and the emergence of a virtual industry of amateur history-writing aimed at revealing the truth of the Akô Incident in conflict management research, ways that often amount to the most fantastic speculation. The best example, perhaps, is the problem of the cause of the incident that began it all, the attack by Asano in the Matsu-no-rôka of Edo Castle. The way was first cleared by the demonstration of respectable historians--notably Matsushima Eiichi in his judicious 1964 Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to tenkai in the Iwanami shinsho series--that the development college essay surviving documentation gave very few clues as to the real reasons for Asano's grudge against Kira. This means that it is anybody's guess, and over a hero and my, as a result a great many theories have been put forward.
Take, for example, the episode on the Matsu-no-rôka incident that appeared in NHK's Invitation to History (Rekishi e no shôtai) series, in which academic historians, amateur historians, and writers of historical fiction are all happily mixed together to debate a particular issue. One major topic of discussion in this particular program was the so-called salt-farm theory, deriving from the fact that both Akô and Kira Yoshinaka's own domain of Kira-chô, located 40 km southeast of Nagoya on Atsumi Bay, just happened to be producers of salt. It was the novelist Ozaki Shirô--a native of Kira-chô--who first proposed in 1949 that the incident had its origins in a salt rivalry between Asano, whose Akô salt was of superior quality, and Kira, who had easier access to the Edo market. Of the several versions of the salt-farm theory, the most common envisions Kira sending spies to Akô to steal the secrets of superior salt technology, thereby provoking Asano and eventually the Matsu-no-rôka attack. Never mind that there is not a shred of evidence for the theory: the NHK show made a virtue of rural development college essay, this by featuring a lengthy discussion by a leading expert of chips, Edo salt production, who conclusively demonstrated that the industrial spy theory was in fact implausible, since the geological and rural college, labor conditions in Kira-chô would have made Akô's techniques useless anyway.
Also offered on the same show was a novel theory centering on write paper the abnormal psychology of rural development college essay, Asano, proposed by Anzai Norio, a specialist in the psychology of history from Oitemon Gakuin University in Osaka and the author of such works as A Psychological Walking Tour of change thesis, Kyoto and The Psychology of the Tea Ceremony . Professor Anzai diagnoses Asano as a clear case of an obsessive-compulsive personality type ( nenchaku kishitsu ), characterized by exaggerated attachment to form and ceremony, extreme preoccupation with cleanliness, and a revulsion against money--naturally extending to the offering of bribes. Development Essay? What actually happened in write, the Matsu-no-rôka, however, was a kind of epileptic fit to rural, which this type of personality is susceptible and which allegedly ran in thesis, the Asano family. The immediate provocation of the attack, Anzai speculates, was a sudden burst of light that struck Asano's eye, triggering what is known as an illuminant seizure ( kôgensei hossa ). Anzai admits that the sun was high and the sky cloudy at the time of the attack, but proposes that the contrasting pattern of light and dark on the floor would have been sufficient. Without going into the five other theories discussed on the NHK show, this should be enough to suggest the amount of rural essay, ingenuity that has been devoted to explaining the twists and turns of the Akô Incident. These have been put forth in a steady outpouring of books claiming to tell, once again, the truth of the Akô Incident. In effect, the incident has become much like a mystery story, to be figured out by clever detectives; any concern with the deeper moral and essay over a hero and my, political implications of the event recedes into the background. In these ways, the historicity of the Akô Incident has served to keep the development college essay Chûshingura legend alive even when those political implications no longer seem compelling. Symptomatic of this trend is Izawa Motohiko's Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku (Shinchôsha, 1988), described on the cover as a historical detective story. It involves a young contemporary playwright who is asked to write a play about Chûshingura and becomes entangled in the mysteries of the historical event itself. In this way, Chûshingura as history is made palatable to a new generation.
In the entire body of debunking and revisionism about the Akô Incident, the two themes that stand out are the assignment for me do my coursework reevaluation of Kira Yoshinaka and rural, of the disloyal retainers who failed to participate in the attack. Each of these themes has a considerable history. In particular, the chemistry rescue of Kira from his villainous fate, emphasizing his role as a model lord in development college, his own domain, has been pressed since the 1930s, and has become especially active in the postwar period. The town of Kira-chô itself has predictably made much of this theme, and the temple with Kira's grave has become a popular tourist site, attracting some 10,000 visitors a year. (26) Various recent books have been devoted entirely to telling the Kira story, such as Fumidate Teruko's non-fiction Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura or Morimura Seiichi's two-volume historical novel, Kira Chûshingura , both published in 1988. The writer of the 1980s who has made the most imaginative use of what might be called anti-Chûshingura themes is Inoue Hisashi, a virtuoso parodist who looks back to Edo gesaku for inspiration.
This began with his Fuchûshingura , serialized irregularly in over dad, Subaru from May 1980 to rural college essay, December 1984, and published as a single volume in 1985. It is, the title tells us, a Treasury of Disloyal Retainers, a series of nineteen portraits of those retainers of Asano who did not participate in the vendetta. Inoue's takes as point of departure the argument that the 47 Ronin accounted for change footer fewer than one in six of the 308 former retainers of Asano, and that it would clearly be a mistake to see this minority as in any way typical. (27) For a real model of Japanese behavior, one needs rather to turn to the disloyal retainers. His resulting portraits are diverse, humorous and imaginative, presenting a wide range of motivation and giving an effective sense of life in Genroku Edo. Inoue followed the disloyal retainers with a new characterization of Kira in the play Inu no adauchi , written for a performance at the Komatsuza in Tokyo in September 1988. (28) The play recreates the final two hours of Kira's life in real time, from the point at which he goes to hide in a charcoal shed when the Akô band attacks. Hiding in the shed with him are a dog that had been a personal gift from Tsunayoshi, various personal retainers and development, maids, and a thief who just happens to have snuck into the mansion on the night of the attack. In the chemistry coursework final scene, Kira wakes up to the fact that he has been little more than a victim of rural, Tsunayoshi's regime, and short rainy, grasps Ôishi's true intent as rebellion against the shogun. Kira realizes that although he himself will be despised as a villain for the rest of time, he will play a key role in the survival of the valiant story of Ôishi and his band. Sensing that he and Ôishi thus share a common glorious destiny, Kira in triumph leaves the charcoal shed to development college essay, meet his fate, declaring that Now Kôsuke-no-suke goes forth to mythology over, live! Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? Even more than Inoue Hisashi, the writer who has done most to revive Chûshingura in the 1980s has been Maruya Saiichi, whose Chûshingura to development college essay, wa nanika became a bestseller after its appearance in 1984 and has continued to inspire new writings in and about the legend.
It is essay rainy day kids difficult in brief compass to do justice to development college essay, the complexity of Maruya's various arguments, or to the sheer interest of the book, with its wealth of write research, fascinating and arcane detail about the college essay Akô Incident and Edo culture in general. Some of his major emphases, however, can be quickly outlined. Maruya, it must be remembered, is a novelist and literary critic, and these callings do much to short essay rainy, fashion his conception of rural, Chûshingura. His basic approach is write cultural studies research seen most clearly in his explicit use of Chûshingura to refer to both to development college, the historical event and to Kanadehon Chûshingura , distinguishing the two as jiken to shite no Chûshingura and shibai to shite no Chûshingura. This in turn reflects his central theme, that the historical Akô vendetta was literally a dramatic incident (gekiteki na jiken), in the sense that the 47 Ronin were reenacting the vendetta of the Soga Brothers as it had been understood through Edo kabuki performances. Do My For Me? In short, Maruya proposes, the historical Akô Incident was essentially a literary event--a new and daring conflation of the role of history and literature in the Chûshingura legend as a whole.
The various specific arguments advanced by Maruya tend to be drawn from folklore and anthropology, thus tying in with a generally popular intellectual trend in Japan of the 1980s. He argues that the vendettas of the Soga Brothers and the 47 Ronin were both attempts to appease the vengeful spirits ( onryô ) of college, their dead masters (or father in the Soga case), drawing on Japanese folklore research on onryô . Maruya's arguments here bear a strong resemblance to the those of Umehara Takeshi in Kakusareta jûjika (1972), in which it is argued that the rebuilding of Hôryûji after the fire of conflict papers, 672 was intended in many complicated ways as an effort to ward off the avenging spirit of Shôtoku Taishi, angry at the termination of his line. Rural Development Essay? Indeed, Maruya's entire approach shares much with that of Umehara: both are contemptuous of established academic theories, both drawn to riddles and change, mysteries, both prone to seek explanations in hidden spiritual forces, and both are compelling writers. Not content with seeing the force of onryô in the vendetta of the Akô ronin, Maruya asserts a hidden element of hostility to the bakufu in the act, tracing it back to an alleged anti-Yoritomo motif in the revenge of the Soga brothers. In this way, Maruya continues an older tradition of seeing the college Akô vendetta as essentially directed against the bakufu, but he now gives it an even more sinister and seditious sense. In Maruya's most controversial allegation, he carried this theme of a disguised rebellion over to Kanadehon Chûshingura , which he interprets as a kind of carnival in the European manner, a springtime festival involving the ritual killing of the king of winter--in this case, Moronao, but by implication, the shogun Tsunayoshi as well. The first reviews of Maruya's book were uniformly enthusiastic, but in March 1985, a lengthy and research, highly critical review by Suwa Haruo, a historian of rural development college essay, Edo theater, appeared in change thesis footer, the journal Shingeki . Suwa systematically argued against most of Maruya's arguments about the meaning of the Soga drama and its impact on the Akô affair.
Maruya answered Suwa in a scathing counter-attack in Gunzô in May 1985, leading to rural college essay, a counter-reply by mythology over Suwa and then a counter-counter-reply by Maruya. Meanwhile, Maruya was attacked on another front, by the anthropologist Yamaguchi Masao, who accused him of both misunderstanding and misapplying western anthropological theory in his notion of Chûshingura as carnival. (29) Without going into the many complexities of all the arguments involved, let me simply say that on strictly historical grounds, I tend to side with Suwa Haruo, who claims that Maruya's theories simply cannot be proved. Maruya himself recognized this in one of his responses to Suwa, claiming that since he was dealing with deep, hidden motivations, one could not expect to find any direct evidence. Time and again, Maruya claims to development, have a special sense of the superstitious and magical ( jujutsuteki , one of his favorite words) beliefs of the common people of Edo, enabling him to see through to the true motivations of the Akô ronin, which have been misrepresented over the centuries by Confucian scholars. Here, as in his reliance on the findings of folklorists, Maruya clearly sees himself at practicing a kind of minshûshi , or people's history. In the end, Maruya has succeeded in using history to further the cause of Chûshingura as literature. Yamaguchi Masao, at the end of his hostile review of assignment for me do my for me, Maruya's book, quotes approvingly the remark of a science fiction writer who wondered why Maruya, with that much knowledge, didn't just go ahead and write a novel. College? And in the end, that is probably the chemistry marble chips coursework best way to read Chûshingura to wa nanika --as a novel. Rural Development College? Or more accurately, we must realized that we have reached a point in the history of Chûshingura that any systematic effort to separate history from fiction is doomed to frustration. What the Hell is Chûshingura?
Chûshingura has shown remarkable resilience throughout its history of almost two centuries, and essay over a hero and my, seems alive and well today. Indeed, mass media even declared a Chûshingura boom in 1986, beginning with New Year's Eve when a Nihon Television production of Chûshingura achieved an development essay, audience share of conflict management research, 17 per cent when competing against NHK's venerable song contest, Kôhaku uta-gassen. It was followed by a February performance at the Kabuki-za, and a complete performance of the original puppet play at the National Theater in the fall. In addition, Chûshingura went international with the European tour of The Kabuki, a French adaptation of the Chûshingura theme performed by the Tokyo Ballet. In the same year, Inoue Hisashi's Fuchûshingura appeared and the first volume of Morimura Seiichi's new epic historical novel of Chûshingura was published in October. (30) But is it possible that we are reaching the end of Chûshingura as a living tradition? The possibility is raised by a consideration of the development essay age of the authors responsible for the recent spate of books listed in do my assignment for me do my coursework for me, the Appendix below.
Out of fourteen for whom birth years could be ascertained, five were born in the 1920s, eight in the years 1931-34, and one (Izawa Motohiko, the author of the historical detective story mentioned earlier) in 1954. Rural Development? The concentration among older writers, particularly those born in the early 1930s, is mythology essay over and my striking. In other words, Chûshingura is development college essay being kept alive by a generation that could still read the account of essay over and my, Ôishi Yoshio in the prewar elementary school textbooks, and who reached maturity during the great postwar era of Chûshingura film popularity, from rural, 1949 to 1962. Does this mean that Chûshingura will in management papers, fact begin to disappear as this older generation and its readers disappear? One small piece of evidence to development essay, the contrary is write cultural paper one of the rural college most curious books of the 1980s, a 1988 work by the implausible author Akita to Ikumi to Tamiko-chan with the equally implausible title 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu . The orthography of the mythology essay title is so expressive and difficult to capture in romanization that I here provide a reproduction of the cover that also reveals the shocking pink color--hardly what one would expect from a conventional explication of Chûshingura. The title is similarly difficult to translate in development college essay, a way that captures the sense of short essay day kids, contemporary Tokyo slang, but the authors themselves provide a good stab at it in college, an English table of contents provided as an appendix (itself a revealing mark of contemporary youth culture): What the hell is essay over a hero Chûshingura? As the title suggests, the development book is clearly intended for a generation that did not grow up with Chûshingura but somehow feels responsible for knowing about it.
The main text, although written in the characteristic jargon of teenage girls and illustrated with cheery cartoons, actually provides a serious and chips, responsible account of all the details of the historical Akô Incident. In a mark of contemporary egalitarianism, all honorifics are dropped, and Lord Asano becomes Asano-kun, while Kira is referred to as Kira no jisama. It is hard to know exactly what to make of a book like this, but at the very least it proves that there is clearly an audience for Chûshingura in essay, the younger generation, if only to overcome its embarrassment at not really knowing anything about it. Even if Chûshingura does not ultimately win over the younger generation in studies paper, Japan, however, history lies in rural college, wait to provide one more grand opportunity for a new lease on studies life. I refer to the tricentennial of the Akô Incident, which will begin in just eleven years and (thanks again to the particular nature of the event) will last for almost two years.
It is development hard to believe that there are not publishers, producers, and politicians in Japan who are already beginning to plan for the event: if Chûshingura is lively in the 1980s, it boggles the mind to think what it might be in 2001-2003. Appendix: CHUSHINGURA BOOKS IN THE '80s (A Partial List) 1980.3: NHK, ed. Chûshingura . Rekishi e no shôtai, vol. 5. NHK. (Reissued as vol. 15 in Nov. 1988.) 1980.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Write Studies Research? Fukushû--Moo hitotsu no Akô rôshi den . Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. 1981.11: Watanabe Tamotsu. Chûshingura: Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku . Hakusuisha. 1981.11: Ozaki Hideki, comp.
Chûshingura meimeiden--Monogatari to shiseki o tazunete . Seibidô. 1981.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Chûshingura igaishi . Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. Rural Essay? Sequel to 1980.12 volume above. 1981.12: Kuwata Tadachika.
Akô rôshi shidan . Shiode shuppan. 1981.12: Horikawa Toyohiro. Kira Kôzuke-no-suke zuidan . Meigen shobô. 1981.12: Shioda Michio. Genroku Bushidô--Chûshingura to ningenzô . 1981.12: Tamiya Yukio. Jitsuroku Yonezawa Chûshingura--Akô rôshi to Uesugi-ke . Marble Chips? Yonezawa: Fubô shuppan. Rural Development? 1982.01: Suwa Haruo, Chûshingura no sekai: Nihonjin no shinjô no genryû , 1982. 1982.06: Iio Kuwashi. Igaishi Chûshingura . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha. 1982.08: Muramatsu Shunkichi.
Akô jiken no kyozô to nazo--Ura kara kaita sugao no Chûshingura . Nihon bungeisha. 1983.11: Tsurumi Shunsuke and Yasuda Takeshi, Chûshingura to Yotsuya kaidan: Nihonjin no communication . Asahi shinbunsha. 1984.10: Maruya Saiichi. Write Cultural Research Paper? Chûshingura to wa nanika . Kôdansha. 1985.06: Iio Kuwashi, Za Chûshingura . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.
1985.12: Komuro Kinnosuke. Rural Essay? Chûshingura no jikenbo . Tokyo shoseki. 1985.12: Inoue Hisashi. Fuchûshingura . Shûeisha. Serialized irregularly in Subaru May 1980 to December 1984. 1986.10: Morimura Seiichi, Chûshingura . Change Thesis Footer? Vol. I. 1986.12: Fujita Hiroshi.
Issatsu marugoto Chûshingura no hon . Longsellers. 1987.11: Imao Tetsuya. Kira no kubi--Chûshingura to imajineeshon . Heibonsha. 1988.04: Iio Kuwashi. Chûshingura no shinsô . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.
1988: Inoue Hisashi. Inu no adauchi . Bungei shunjû sha. 1988.11: Kobayashi Nobuhiko. Ura-omote Chûshingura . Development? Shinchôsha. 1988.11: Akita to Ikumi to do my assignment, Tamiko-chan. College? 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu. Gogatsu shobô. 1988.12: Shimura Takeshi. Chûshingura no jinseikun . Mikasa shobô. 1988.12: Izawa Motohiko.
Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku . Shinchôsha. Do My Assignment Do My For Me? 1988.12: Fumidate Teruko. Rural Development? Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura . PHP Kenkyûjo. 1988: Morimura Seiichi. Kira Chûshingura . Chemistry? 2 vols. 1989.01: Kôdo Suisei. Chûshingura nante nakatta . Banseisha. January 1989 [Nuclear Age Year 44]. 1. The students and the topics they studied were: Michael Ainge (short stories about Ôishi Kuranosuke by Akutagawa Ryûnosuke and Nogami Yaeko), Andy Cane (Utamaro parody prints [ mitate-e ] on Chûshingura), John Carpenter (early uki-e Chûshingura prints), Iori Joko ( kibyôshi parodies of Chûshingura), Sue Kawashima (the case for Kira Kôzuke-no-suke), Jordan Sand (reporting the rural college essay Akô Incident in Edo), and Keiko Takahashi (Hiroshige's Chûshingura prints).
2. In actual fact, the term Chûshingura seems to have been used prior to Kanadehon , in an illustrated kurohon chapbook of research papers, 1746. Few, however, are aware of this. 3. The regular use of Akô jiken seems to date from the 1960s. Development College? The one-volume Nihonshi jiten of mythology essay a hero dad, 1954, edited by the Kokushi kenkyûshitsu of Kyoto University, describes the incident under Akô gishi, while the college essay first volume of the Iwanami Kokushi daijiten (Yoshikawa kôbunkan, 1979 ff), uses rather Akô jiken. 4. Kira's name is read by some as Yoshihisa. Essay Dad? 5. Fairbank, Reischauer, and Craig, East Asia: Tradition and Transformation , p. Development Essay? 411.
6. Paul Varley, Japanese Culture , 3rd ed. Cultural Research Paper? (University of Hawaii Press, 1984), p. 184. 7. Jordan Sand, Chûshingura as a Media Event: Reporting and rural, Documentation of the Akô Incident. 8. Kôsaka Jirô, Genroku o-tatami bugyô no nikki--Owari hanshi no mita ukiyo (Chûkô shinsho, 1984), pp. 180-183. 9. See Donald Shively, Tokugawa Plays on Forbidden Topics, in James Brandon, ed., Chûshingura--Studies in Kabuki and the Puppet Theater (Univ. of mythology over a hero and my, Hawaii Press, 1982), p. 35. In Japanese, the most recent discussion of the problem is Watanabe Tamotsu, Chûshingura--Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku (Hakusuisha, 1981), pp. 34-39.
10. Rural College Essay? I rely here on chemistry marble coursework the description of Aoki Sentei, Keiseika serareta gishi shôsetsu, Aoi , nos. 2-4 (June-Aug, 1910), pp. 13-17, 10-12, 14-18. Development? 11. Mythology Over And My? Shively, op.cit. , gives a detailed summary in English. The seminal work in this area was Yuda Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura seiritsushi, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô , December 1967, reprinted in Yuda, Jôruri shi ronkô (Chûô kôronsha, 1975), pp.
359-370. 12. Rural Development College Essay? Fujino Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura: Kaishaku to kenkyû (3 vols., Ofûsha, 1974), I/80-144. 13. Nakayama Mikio, Chûshingura monogatari , Ukiyoe kabuki shiriizu 3 (Gakugei shorin, 1988), p. 17. 14. Conflict Management? This and three other kibyôshi parodies were the topic of the seminar paper by Iori Joko, Chûshingura Parodies in Kibyôshi.
Anatehon Chûshingura appears in rural development college, an annotated edition in Koike Masatane, et al. , eds., Edo no gesaku ehon , zokkan 1 (Gendai kyôyô bunko, Shakai shisôsha, 1984). 15. Satô Tadao, Chûshingura--Iji no keifu (Asahi sensho, 1976), p. 88. 16. It might be argued that the two words Kanadehon and Chûshingura imply two different vectors in the interpretation of the Akô vendetta, with the former emphasizing the footer individuality and sense of honor of each the rural 47 separate retainers, and the latter implying their unity as a band loyal to a single lord. Management Research Papers? In the variants of Kanadehon Chûshingura listed by Fujino, op.cit. , words referring to the kana number (particularly iroha and shijûshichi ) are just about rural development essay, twice as common in the kabuki tradition as words relating to loyalty ( chûshin , gishin , chûgi , etc.) up until Meiji, when terms of short day kids, loyalty become dominant.
17. I am indebted in the following account to development, Matsushima Eiichi, Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to change thesis footer, tenkai (Iwanami shinsho, 1964), pp. 213 ff. 18. As cited by rural Satô Tadao, op.cit. , p. 96, from a privately published work, Eiga Chûshingura. 19. Mayama's work is discussed in assignment do my for me, detail in Donald Keene, Variations on a Theme: Chûshingura , in James Brandon, op.cit. , pp. 13-21. Satô Tadao, op.cit. , p. College Essay? 108, quotes Mayama's daughter as claiming that her father really wanted to depict the Akô ronin as opponents of thesis footer, tyrannical shogunal rule, but was prevented by the militarism of the times.
Mayama's Genroku Chûshingura served as the basis for Mizoguchi Kenji's two-part film of the same name, 1941-42. 20. Gregory Barrett, Archetypes in Japanese Film: The Sociopolitical and Religious Significance of the Principal Heroes and rural college essay, Heroines (Associated University Presses, 1989), p. Chemistry? 30. 22. Akutagawa's story was translated and essay, analyzed in the seminar paper by Michael Ainge, Nogami Yaeko and Akutagawa Ryûnosuke: Two More Voices Join the Chûshingura Legend. 23. The work is mentioned in Matsushima, op.cit. , p. 223, as having appeared in Shinkô kagaku no hata no moto ni , under the penname Ôkawa Hyônosuke, entitled Ôishi Yoshio no bawai. Conflict? 24.
Quoted in Satô Tadao, op.cit. , pp. 102-3. 26. Kira was studied in a seminar paper by Sue Kawashima, Kira Yoshihisa, A Tragic Hero: A Neglected Perspective. 27. Inoue made these points in a taidan with Morimura Seiichi, Shûkan Asahi , May 21, 1982. 28. I rely here on rural development the description of the play in Nawata Kazuo, 'Chûshingura' sakuhin arekore--kinsaku to ippin, Taishû bungaku kenkyû , v. 87 (January 1989), pp.
8-9. 29.Yamaguchi Masao, Chûshingura to do my for me coursework, ôken no ronri, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô 31/15 (December 1986), pp. 38-41. 30. These details come from Asahi kiiwaado , 1987, p. 28.
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International standard paper sizes. Standard paper sizes like ISO A4 are widely used all over the world today. This text explains the ISO 216 paper size system and the ideas behind its design. In the ISO paper size system, the height-to-width ratio of all pages is the square root of rural development college essay, two (1.4142 : 1). In other words, the width and essay day kids the height of a page relate to each other like the side and the diagonal of development college, a square. This aspect ratio is especially convenient for a paper size.
If you put two such pages next to each other, or equivalently cut one parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces, then the resulting page will have again the chemistry marble same width/height ratio. The ISO paper sizes are based on the metric system. The square-root-of-two ratio does not permit both the height and width of the pages to be nicely rounded metric lengths. College? Therefore, the mythology essay dad area of the development pages has been defined to short rainy have round metric values. As paper is usually specified in rural development essay, g/m?, this simplifies calculation of the mass of a document if the format and number of pages are known. ISO 216 defines the A series of paper sizes based on thesis these simple principles: The height divided by essay the width of conflict management research, all formats is the square root of rural development essay, two (1.4142).
Format A0 has an area of one square meter. Format A1 is A0 cut into two equal pieces. Chemistry Marble? In other words, the height of rural, A1 is the width of A0 and the width of A1 is half the conflict management research papers height of A0. All smaller A series formats are defined in the same way. If you cut format A n parallel to its shorter side into two equal pieces of paper, these will have format A( n +1). The standardized height and rural essay width of the cultural paper paper formats is a rounded number of millimeters. For applications where the ISO A series does not provide an adequate format, the development college B series has been introduced to essay over a hero and my dad cover a wider range of paper sizes.
The C series of development, formats has been defined for envelopes. The width and height of a B n format are the geometric mean between those of the chemistry marble coursework A n and the next larger A( n ?1) format. For instance, B1 is the geometric mean between A1 and A0, that means the rural development college essay same magnification factor that scales A1 to B1 also scales B1 to A0. Similarly, the formats of the C series are the geometric mean between the conflict papers A and B series formats with the college essay same number. For example, an (unfolded) A4 size letter fits nicely into a C4 envelope, which in turn fits as nicely into a B4 envelope. Day Kids? If you fold this letter once to development A5 format, then it will fit nicely into mythology dad a C5 envelope. B and C formats naturally are also square-root-of-two formats.
Note: The geometric mean of two numbers x and y is the rural college essay square root of their product, ( xy ) 1/2 , whereas their arithmetic mean is half their sum, ( x + y )/2. For example, the geometric mean of the numbers 2 and 8 is 4 (because 4/2 = 8/4), whereas their arithmetic mean is conflict management papers, 5 (because 5?2 = 8?5). Development College? The arithmetic mean is half-way between two numbers by addition, whereas the short essay day kids geometric mean is half-way between two numbers by multiplication. By the rural development essay way: The Japanese JIS P 0138-61 standard defines the same A series as ISO 216, but a slightly different B series of paper sizes, sometimes called the JIS B or JB series. JIS B0 has an area of change thesis, 1.5 m?, such that the area of development college essay, JIS B pages is the arithmetic mean of the area of the rainy day kids A series pages with the same and the next higher number, and not as in the ISO B series the geometric mean . For example, JB3 is 364 ? 515, JB4 is rural college essay, 257 ? 364, and JB5 is write studies research paper, 182 ? 257 mm. Using the JIS B series should be avoided. It introduces additional magnification factors and rural is not an international standard. The following table shows the mythology a hero dad width and height of all ISO A and B paper formats, as well as the ISO C envelope formats. The dimensions are in millimeters:
The allowed tolerances are ±1.5 mm for dimensions up to 150 mm, ±2 mm for dimensions above 150 mm up to 600 mm, and ±3 mm for dimensions above 600 mm. Some national equivalents of ISO 216 specify tighter tolerances, for college essay instance DIN 476 requires ±1 mm, ±1.5 mm, and ±2 mm respectively for the same ranges of dimensions. The ISO standard paper size system covers a wide range of formats, but not all of them are widely used in practice. Among all formats, A4 is studies research, clearly the most important one for daily office use. Some main applications of the most popular formats can be summarized as: The main advantage of the rural college essay ISO standard paper sizes becomes obvious for conflict management users of copying machines: You are in a library and development essay want to copy an article out of do my for me do my coursework for me, a journal that has A4 format.
In order to save paper, you want copy two journal pages onto college essay, each sheet of write cultural research, A4 paper. If you open the journal, the two A4 pages that you will now see together have A3 format. By setting the magnification factor on rural the copying machine to 71% (that is research papers, sqrt(0.5)), or by rural pressing the change footer A3>A4 button that is essay, available on most copying machines, both A4 pages of the journal article together will fill exactly the do my for me coursework for me A4 page produced by the copying machine. One reproduced A4 page will now have A5 format. College? No wasted paper margins appear, no text has been cut off, and no experiments for for me finding the appropriate magnification factor are necessary.
The same principle works for books in rural college, B5 or A5 format. Copying machines designed for ISO paper sizes usually provide special keys for the following frequently needed magnification factors: The magnification factors between all A sizes: Not only the conflict research operation of copying machines in rural development, offices and libraries, but also repro photography, microfilming, and printing are simplified by short essay rainy the 1:sqrt(2) aspect ratio of ISO paper sizes. If you prepare a letter, you will have to know the college essay weight of the content in order to determine the postal fee. This can be very conveniently calculated with the studies ISO A series paper sizes. Usual typewriter and laser printer paper weighs 80 g/m?. An A0 page has an area of rural, 1 m?, and the next smaller A series page has half of this area. Therefore, the A4 format has an area of change footer, 1/16 m? and weighs with the rural development college essay common paper quality 5 g per page. If we estimate 20 g for change thesis footer a C4 envelope (including some safety margin), then you will be able to put 16 A4 pages into development a letter before you reach the 100 g limit for change the next higher postal fee.
Calculation of the mass of rural, books, newspapers, or packed paper is equally trivial. Marble Chips? You probably will not need such calculations often, but they nicely show the beauty of the rural development concept of metric paper sizes. Using standard paper sizes saves money and makes life simpler in do my for me do my coursework, many applications. For example, if all scientific journals used only ISO formats, then libraries would have to buy only very few different sizes for rural college the binders. Shelves can be designed such that standard formats will fit in exactly without too much wasted shelf volume. The ISO formats are used for surprisingly many things besides office paper: the German citizen ID card has format A7, both the European Union and the U.S. (!) passport have format B7, and short rainy day kids library microfiches have format A6. In some countries (e.g., Germany) even many brands of toilet paper have format A6. The ISO paper sizes are specified in the standard in a table that states their width and height in millimeters. Following the principles described above, the dimensions could be calculated with the following formulas:
However, the rural essay actual millimeter dimensions in the standard have been calculated instead by using the above values only at n = 0, and then progressively dividing these values by two to obtain the smaller sizes, each time rounding the result to footer the next lower integer number of millimeters (floor function). This rounding to the next lower integer guarantees that two A( n +1) pages together are never larger than an A n page. The following programs demonstrate this algorithm in several programming languages: iso-paper.c – C version iso-paper.py – Python version. Sometimes, paper formats with a different aspect ratio are required for labels, tickets, and other purposes. College Essay? These should preferably be derived by cutting standard series sizes into a hero and my dad 3, 4, or 8 equal parts, parallel with the shorter side, such that the ratio between the rural longer and shorter side is conflict papers, greater than the square root of two. Some example long formats in millimeters are:
The 1/3 A4 format (99 ? 210 mm) is also commonly applied for reduced letterheads for short notes that contain not much more than a one sentence message and fit without folding into a DL envelope. For postal purposes, ISO 269 and rural college essay DIN 678 define the following envelope formats: The DL format is the most widely used business letter format. Thesis? DL probably originally stood for “DIN lang”, but ISO 269 now explains this abbreviation instead more diplomatically as “Dimension Lengthwise”. Its size falls somewhat out of the system and equipment manufacturers have complained that it is slightly too small for reliable automatic enveloping. Development College Essay? Therefore, DIN 678 introduced the C6/C5 format as an research papers, alternative for college the DL envelope. Window envelopes, A4 letterheads, folding marks and standard layouts.
There exists no international standard yet for window envelopes and matching letterhead layouts. There are various incompatible national standards, for example: Germany: DIN 680 specifies that a transparent address window is 90 ? 45 mm large and its left edge should be located 20 mm from the left edge of the envelope. For C6, DL, and C6/C5 envelopes, the mythology essay over and my bottom edge of the window should be 15 mm from the bottom edge of the envelope. For C4 envelopes, the rural college top edge of the window should be either 27 or 45 mm from the top edge of the conflict envelope. The letterhead standard DIN 676 does not specify the actual content or form of a pre-printed letterhead, it only specifies zones for the location of development, certain elements. The letterhead format specified in DIN 676 has a 85 ? 45 mm large address field visible through the window, in which the thesis footer top 5 mm are reserved for printing in a small font the sender’s address and the bottom 40 mm are for writing the recipient’s address. College? This field starts 20 mm from the left paper edge and either 27 mm (form A) or 45 mm (form B) from the top. Chips? The two alternatives allow a choice of either a small (form A) or large (form B) letterhead layout in the area above the address field. Rural College Essay? Standard folding marks on the letterhead assist users to insert the letter correctly into C6, DL, or C6/C5 window envelopes. There is one folding mark (for C6) on for me coursework for me the top edge of the page, 148 mm from the left edge. There are also two folding marks on the left edge of the page, either 105 and 210 mm from the bottom edge (form A) or 105 and development college essay 210 mm from the top edge (form B).
United Kingdom: BS 4264 specifies that the transparent window on short rainy a DL envelope should be 93 ? 39 mm large. Development College Essay? Its top-left corner should be located 20 mm from the left margin and short essay rainy day kids 53 mm from the top margin of the essay envelope. BS 1808 specifies an 80 ? 30 mm large address panel on the letterhead. Its top-left corner is assignment do my coursework, located 20 mm from the left margin and 51 mm from the top margin of the page. The address panel is college, embedded inside a 91 ? 48 mm large exclusion zone whose top left corner is cultural, located 20 mm from the left margin and 42 mm from the top margin of the page. In other words, the area 9 mm above and below and 11 mm right of the college address panel should be kept clean of any other printing. Switzerland: The envelope window is 100 ? 45 mm large and conflict management research located 12 mm either from the left or the right edge.
The distance to the top edge is essay, 48 mm (for C6 and C5/C6) or 52 mm (for C5). The SNV 010130 letterhead format places the rainy recipient’s address into a 90 ? 40 mm large field 45 mm from the top and 8 mm from the development essay right edge of the essay A4 page. [from: H.R. Bosshard, 1980, ISBN 3-85584-010-5] Finland: SFS 2488:1994 specifies that for E series envelopes the size of the window is 90 ? 30 mm and for essay the C series 95 ? 35 mm. In either case, the left margin is short rainy, 18 mm and development the top margin 40 mm. SFS 2487:2000 (“Layout of document text area”) and chemistry marble chips SFS 2486:1999 (“Forms Layout”) specify that the area for the recipient’s address is 76.2 ? 25.4 mm, located 20 mm from the development essay left, and write studies research paper 10±1 mm plus 25.4 mm from the top (the 25.4 mm are for the sender’s information). According to rural essay ISO 11180 and Universal Postal Union standards, an international postal address should be not longer than 6 lines with up to 30 characters each. This requires a maximum area of 76.2 ? 38.1 mm with the short day kids commonly used typewriter character width of 2.54 mm (1/10) and a baseline distance of 6.35 mm (1/4). The Universal Postal Union Letter Post Regulations specify a standard position of the address on the envelope, which is within 140 mm from the right edge, at least 40 mm from the rural essay top edge, and is surrounded by at footer least 15 mm unprinted envelope to the left, right and below of the address text. A widely used international standard A4 document format is the United Nations Layout Key for rural college Trade Documents (ISO 6422).
Folding larger pages to A4 for rainy day kids filing. DIN 824 describes a method of rural college essay, folding A0, A1, etc. pages to A4 format for filing. This clever technique ensures that there remains a 20 mm single-layer margin for filing holes, that the page can be unfolded and folded again without being removed from the file, and that the label field at the bottom-left corner of technical drawings ends up in coursework, correct orientation on top of the folded page in the file. ISO 623 specifies the sizes of folders and files intended to receive either A4 sheets or simple folders (without back) that are not designed for rural development college essay any particular filing system or cabinet. The sizes specified are those of the overall rectangular surface when the folders or files are folded, exclusive any margin or tabs. Simple folders without back or mechanism are 220 ? 315 mm large. Folders and files with a very small back (less than 25 mm) with or without mechanism are 240 ? 320 mm large. Files with wide back (exceeding 25 mm) are 250 ? 320 mm (without a mechanism) or 290 ? 320 mm if they include a mechanism. All these are maximum dimensions. For Me Do My For Me? Standardizing folder and file sizes helps to development college optimize shelf designs and provides a uniform look and marble coursework handling even if folders from various manufacturers are used.
ISO 838 specifies that, for filing purposes, two holes of 6±0.5 mm diameter can be punched into the sheets. The centers of the two holes are 80±0.5 mm apart and have a distance of 12±1 mm to the nearest edge of the sheet. The holes are located symmetrically in college essay, relation to footer the axis of the sheet or document. Any format that is at least as large as A7 can be filed using this system. Not specified in college, ISO 838, but also widely used, is an upwards compatible 4-hole system. Mythology Over A Hero And My? Its two middle holes correspond to development college essay ISO 838, plus there are two additional holes located 80 mm above and below these to provide for more stability. This way, sheets with four punched holes can also be filed in ISO 838 2-hole binders. Write Cultural Studies? This system is also known under the nickname 888, presumably because the three gaps between the holes are all 8 cm wide. Some hole punches have on their paper guide not only markings for A4, A5, and A6, but also for 888. Rural College? The latter helps to short essay rainy punch either the top or bottom two holes of the 888 4-hole arrangement into an A4 sheet.
Technical drawing pens follow the same size-ratio principle. The standard sizes differ by a factor sqrt(2): 2.00 mm, 1.40 mm, 1.00 mm, 0.70 mm, 0.50 mm, 0.35 mm, 0.25 mm, 0.18 mm, 0.13 mm. So after drawing with a 0.35 mm pen on rural college essay A3 paper and reducing it to A4, you can continue with the do my assignment do my coursework 0.25 mm pen. (ISO 9175-1) There seems to be no international standard yet for ruled writing paper. Essay? The German standards organization has published DIN 16552:1977-04 (“Lines for handwriting”). That system is widely used, at least in Germany, by chemistry chips primary school teachers to specify which school exercise books pupils should use at rural which stage of learning how to essay rainy write. Writing paper with fine gray 5 mm grid lines seems to rural development college be very popular in many countries. All A and B series formats described so far are trimmed paper end sizes, i.e. Conflict Management Research? these are the dimensions of the paper delivered to the user or reader. Other ISO standards define the format series RA and SRA for untrimmed raw paper, where SRA stands for “supplementary raw format A” (“sekundares Rohformat A”). Rural Development Essay? These formats are only slightly larger than the corresponding A series formats. Sheets in these formats will be cut to the end format after binding.
The ISO RA0 format has an area of 1.05 m? and the ISO SRA0 format has an chemistry coursework, area of 1.15 m?. These formats also follow the sqrt(2)-ratio and half-area rule, but the dimensions of the start format have been rounded to the full centimeter. The common untrimmed paper formats that printers order from the rural paper manufacturers are. The RA and mythology over a hero SRA dimensions are also used as roll widths in rotating printing presses. When you prepare overhead projector slides for a conference, you might wonder, how large the picture area of the projector that you will have available is. ISO 7943-1 specifies two standard sizes of overhead projector picture areas: Type A is 250 ? 250 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 60 mm) and Type B is 285 ? 285 mm (corners rounded with a radius less than 40 mm or cut off diagonally no more than 40 mm).
Therefore, if you use A4 transparencies, leave at least a 30 mm top and bottom margin. Most computer displays have the essay same aspect ratio as (traditional) TV sets, namely 4:3 = 640:480 = 800:600 = 1024:768 = 1280:960. Mythology Essay A Hero? If you prepare presentation slides, I recommend that you arrange your layout inside a 280 ? 210 mm field and make sure that you leave at least 20 mm margin on the left and rural college essay right side. Chemistry Marble? This way, you plan for the aspect ratio of a TV/VGA projector and ensure at the same time that you can print on A4 transparencies such that every standard overhead projector will show all parts of your slides. ISO 7810 specifies three formats for identification cards: ID-1 = 85.60 ? 53.98 mm (= 3.370 ? 2.125 in) ID-2 = 105 ? 74 mm (= A7) ID-3 = 125 ? 88 mm (= B7)
ID-1 is the common format for banking cards (0.76 mm thick) and is also widely used for business cards and driver’s licences. Some people prefer A8 (74 ? 52 mm) for business cards. The standard passport format is B7 (= ID-3), the rural development college essay German ID card has A7 (= ID-2) format and the European Union driver’s licence is an ID-1 card. One of the oldest written records regarding the sqrt(2) aspect ratio for paper sizes is a letter that the physics professor Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (University of Gottingen, Germany, 1742-1799) wrote 1786-10-25 to Johann Beckmann. In it, Lichtenberg explains the practical and aesthetic advantages of the sqrt(2) aspect ratio, and of his discovery that paper with that aspect ratio was commonly available at the time. (There are also suggestions that the task to find a paper format that is similar to itself after being cut in essay over and my, half appeared as a question in mathematics exams as early as 1755.) After introducing the meter measurement, the French government published 1798-11-03 the “Loi sur le timbre” (no. 2136), a law on rural development college the taxation of write cultural studies research paper, paper that defined several formats that already correspond exactly to the modern ISO paper sizes: “Grand registre” = ISO A2, “grand papier” = ISO B3, “moyen papier” = ISO A3, “petit papier” = ISO B4, “demi feuille” = ISO B5, “effets de commerce” = ISO 1/2 B5. The French format series never became widely known and rural was quickly forgotten again. The A, B, and C series paper formats, which are based on the exact same design principles, were completely independently reinvented over a hundred years after the “Loi sur le timbre” in Germany by Dr. Walter Porstmann. They were adopted as the do my do my coursework for me German standard DIN 476 in 1922 as a replacement for the vast variety of other paper formats that had been used before, in order to make paper stocking and document reproduction cheaper and more efficient. (For those interested in historic details of the discussions leading to the standard, there are some DIN committee reports, 1918–1923.)
Porstmann’s DIN paper-format concept was convincing, and soon introduced as a national standard in many other countries, for example, Belgium (1924), Netherlands (1925), Norway (1926), Switzerland (1929), Sweden (1930), Soviet Union (1934), Hungary (1938), Italy (1939), Uruguay (1942), Argentina (1943), Brazil (1943), Spain (1947), Austria (1948), Romania (1949), Japan (1951), Denmark (1953), Czechoslovakia (1953), Israel (1954), Portugal (1954), Yugoslavia (1956), India (1957), Poland (1957), United Kingdom (1959), Venezuela (1962), New Zealand (1963), Iceland (1964), Mexico (1965), South Africa (1966), France (1967), Peru (1967), Turkey (1967), Chile (1968), Greece (1970), Simbabwe (1970), Singapur (1970), Bangladesh (1972), Thailand (1973), Barbados (1973), Australia (1974), Ecuador (1974), Columbia (1975) and rural development college Kuwait (1975). It finally became both an international standard (ISO 216) as well as the official United Nations document format in 1975 and rainy day kids it is today used in almost all countries on this planet, with the college essay exception of North America. Chemistry? In 1977, a large German car manufacturer performed a study of the paper formats found in their incoming mail and concluded that out of 148 examined countries, 88 already used the A series formats then. [Source: Helbig/Hennig 1988] Note: The Lichtenberg Ratio – used by the standard paper format series – is occasionally confused with the Golden Ratio (which Euclid referred to as the “extreme and development essay mean ratio”). The Lichtenberg Ratio is change footer, defined by the equation a/b = 2b/a = sqrt(2), whereas the Golden Ratio is defined by a/b = (a+b)/a = b/(a?b) = (1 + sqrt(5))/2. While aesthetically pleasing properties have been attributed to rural college essay both, the Lichtenberg Ratio has the advantage of preserving the aspect ratio when cutting a page into two. The Golden Ratio, on the other hand, preserves the for me do my aspect ratio when cutting a maximal square from the paper, a property that seems not particularly useful for office applications. The Golden Ratio was for a while a more fashionable topic in development college, the antique and renaissance arts literature and it has a close connection to marble the Fibonacci sequence in mathematics. Hints for North American paper users. The United States, Canada, and in part Mexico, are today the only industrialized nations in essay, which the ISO standard paper sizes are not yet widely used. In U.S. office applications, the paper formats “Letter” (216 ? 279 mm), “Legal” (216 ? 356 mm), “Executive” (190 ? 254 mm), and “Ledger/Tabloid” (279 ? 432 mm) are widely used today.
There exists also an American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1 for technical drawing paper sizes A (216 ? 279 mm), B (279 ? 432 mm), C (432 ? 559 mm), D (559 ? 864 mm), E (864 ? 1118 mm), and there are many other unsystematic formats for various applications in use. The “Letter”, “Legal”, “Tabloid”, and other formats (although not these names) are defined in research papers, the American National Standard ANSI X3.151-1987. While all ISO paper formats have consistently the same aspect ratio of sqrt(2) = 1.414, the U.S. format series has two different alternating aspect ratios 17/11 = 1.545 and 22/17 = 1.294. Therefore, you cannot reduce or magnify from one U.S. format to the next higher or lower without leaving an empty margin, which is rather inconvenient. American National Standard ANSI/ASME Y14.1m-1995 specifies how to use the college essay ISO A0?A4 formats for technical drawings in the U.S. Technical drawings usually have a fixed drawing scale (e.g., 1:100 means that one meter is drawn as one centimeter), therefore it is not easily possible to resize technical drawings between U.S. and standard paper formats. As a result, internationally operating U.S. corporations increasingly find it more convenient to abandon the old ANSI Y14.1 formats and prepare technical drawings for ISO paper sizes, like the rest of the world does. The historic origins of the 216 ? 279 mm U.S.
Letter format, and in mythology a hero dad, particular its rationale, seem rather obscure. The earliest documented attempts to standardize U.S. paper format used a completely different format. On 1921-03-28, the U.S. Secretary of rural, Commerce (Hoover) declared a 203 ? 267 mm format to be the standard for his department, which was adopted on 1921-09-14 by the Permanent Conference on Printing (established by General Dawes, first director of the Bureau of the short day kids Budget) as the rural essay general U.S. government letterhead standard. Independent of that, on 1921-08-30 a Committee on do my assignment coursework the Simplification of Paper Sizes consisting of printing industry representatives was appointed to work with the Bureau of Standards. It recommended standard basic sizes of 432 ? 559 mm (17 ? 22 in), 432 ? 711 mm (17 ? 28 in), 483 ? 610 mm (19 ? 24 in), 559 ? 864 mm (22 ? 34 in), 711 ? 864 mm (28 ? 34 in), and 610 ? 914 mm (24 ? 36 in). What became later known as the U.S. Letter format is just the first of these basic sizes halved. One hypothesis for rural development college the origin of this format series is that it was derived from a then typical mold size used then in the production of hand-made paper. Change Thesis? “It does not appear, even in the selection of rural development college, 8 1/2 ? 11 inch size paper, that any special analysis was made to prove that this provided an optimum size for a commercial letterhead” [Dunn, 1972.]. It appears that this standard was just a commercial compromise at the time to rainy day kids reduce inventory requirements without requiring significant changes to development college existing production equipment. Mythology Over A Hero? The Hoover standard remained in force until the government declared in 1980-01 the 216 ? 279 mm format to be the new official paper format for U.S. government offices.
The Canadian standard CAN 2-9.60M “Paper Sizes for Correspondence” defines the six formats P1 (560 ? 860 mm), P2 (430 ? 560 mm), P3 (280 ? 430 mm), P4 (215 ? 280 mm), P5 (140 ? 215 mm), and P6 (107 ? 140 mm). Rural Essay? These are just the U.S. Do My For Me Coursework? sizes rounded to the nearest half centimeter (P4. U.S. Ledger). This Canadian standard was introduced in 1976, even though the Ontario Government already had introduced the ISO A series formats before in 1972. Even though these Canadian paper sizes look somewhat like a pseudo-metric standard, they still suffer from the two major inconveniences of the U.S. formats, namely they have no common height/width ratio and they differ significantly from development essay, what the rest of the world uses. Note: It was proposed for an early draft of ISO 216 to recommended the special size 210 ? 280 mm (a format sometimes called PA4) as an interim measure for countries that use 215 ? 280 mm paper and change thesis footer have not yet adopted the development college ISO A series. Some magazines and other print products that have to do my be printed economically on both A4 and U.S.
Letter presses use the PA4 format today. Incidentally, this PA4 format has a width/height ratio of 3:4, the same as traditional TV screens and most computer monitors and video modes. Both the “Letter” and “Legal” format could easily be replaced by A4, “Executive” (if it is rural college essay, really needed) by B5, and “Ledger/Tabloid” by A3. Similarly, the A–E formats can be replaced by A4–A0. It can be hoped and expected that with the continuing introduction of the metric system in the United States, the ISO paper formats will eventually replace non-standard paper formats also in North America. Conversion to A4 as the common business letter and document format in North America would not be too difficult, as practically all modern software, copying machines, and laser printers sold today in the U.S. already support A4 paper as a standard feature. Users of photocopiers outside the U.S. and Canada usually take it for chemistry marble chips granted that the machine is able to enlarge A4 > A3 or reduce A3 > A4, the two paper formats usually kept in development essay, machines with two paper trays. When they use a copier in North America, it often comes as a disappointing surprise when they find out that magnifying an entire page is not a function available there.
The absence of this useful capability is a direct result of the unfortunate design of the U.S. paper formats. North American copiers usually also have two or more paper trays, but these are mostly used for the two very similar “Letter” and footer “Legal” formats, wasting the essay opportunity of offering a highly useful magnifying capability. Any enlarging of a “Letter” page onto rainy day kids, “Legal” paper will always chop off margins and is therefore of rural essay, little use. Do My For Me Coursework For Me? The Legal format itself is quite rarely used, the notion that it is for “legal” work is a popular myth; the vast majority of U.S. legal documents are actually using the “Letter” format. Rural? Some copiers also offer in addition or instead the next larger “Ledger” format, but that again has a different aspect ratio and management research papers will therefore change the margins of a document during magnification or reduction.
Based on rural development essay the experience from the introduction of ISO paper formats in conflict papers, other industrialized countries at various points during the 20th century, it becomes clear that this process needs to be initiated by a political decision to move all government operation to the new paper format system. History shows that the commercial world then gradually and smoothly adopts the new government standard for office paper within about college essay, 10–15 years. It would not be a major operation to do this in the U.S. and Canada as well, especially considering that most standard software and office machines are already prepared for conflict management A4. However, such a project can succeed only development college essay, if the national executive has the political will to accomplish this. The transition period of mythology essay over dad, about a decade is rural essay, necessary to avoid expensive equipment replacement costs for printers, especially those with older large rotary presses that were not yet designed to be easily retooled for ISO paper sizes. If you purchase new office or printing equipment in do my coursework for me, North America, it might be wise to rural essay pay attention whether the rainy equipment is suitable for use with A4 paper.
When you make inquiries, best indicate to rural development college essay vendors that ISO 216 compatibility of equipment is of concern to you. If you live in the U.S. and short essay have never been abroad, you might not be aware that paper and accessories in the North-American sizes are not commonly available outside North America. They are very difficult to obtain in most other countries and the only practical way to get U.S. “Letter” there is to cut one of the next larger available sizes (usually B4, A3 or RA4). Therefore, do not expect anyone to send you documents in “Letter” format from abroad. Rural Development College? If you send documents to any other country, your use of A4 will greatly ease the handling and filing of conflict management papers, your documents for college essay the recipient. Write Cultural Paper? If you design software that might be used globally, please keep in mind that the vast majority of laser printer users will print onto A4 paper. Therefore, always make A4 the default setting and rural development college essay the first selection choice in your printing user interface. Remember that it is the paper format used by about 95% of the people on conflict management research papers this planet.
Due to rural development college popular demand, I have prepared an write studies research paper, unofficial table with the essay ISO sizes in inch fractions. Each listed inch fraction has the smallest denominator that keeps the value within the ISO 216 tolerance limits. Product designers should use the official millimeter values instead. There is also a table in PostScript points. The dominance of the “Letter” format instead of ISO A4 as the common laser-printer paper format in North America causes a lot of thesis footer, problems in daily international document exchange with the USA and development essay Canada. ISO A4 is for me do my, 6 mm less wide but 18 mm higher than the U.S. “Letter” format. Word processing documents with an A4 layout can often not be printed without loss of information on “Letter” paper or require you to reformat the text, which will change the page numbering. “Letter” format documents printed outside North America either show too much white space on the top or bottom of the page or the printer refuses to college operate as “Letter” format paper has been selected by the software but is not available. A4 size documents have to be copied or printed with a 94% magnification factor to fit on the 6% less tall “Letter” paper, and “Letter” documents have to be printed with 97% size to fit on the 3% less wide A4 format. Universities in essay rainy day kids, the U.S. increasingly use A4 size paper in laser printers and library copying machines, because most conferences outside North America require papers to be submitted in development, A4 format and many journals and conference proceedings are printed in A4 format.
The three-hole 108-mm filing system widely used in the U.S. is not compatible with the two-hole 80-mm ISO system used in most other countries. For Me Coursework For Me? The three-hole system could of course also be used on A4 pages, but many files with a three-hole mechanism are only designed for U.S. “Letter” sheets and are not tall enough to reliably protect A4 pages. Development College Essay? Another disadvantage of the three-hole system is that it is not suitable for storing formats smaller than U.S. “Letter”. The U.S. Postal Service standard-size range for first-class or single piece third-class mail weighing up to 28 g includes ISO C6 and DL envelopes. The U.S. currently use quite a large number of envelope formats. The U.S. paper industry has managed to come up with a truly bizarre way of specifying the essay rainy density of paper.
Instead of providing you with the obvious quotient of mass per area (e.g., in grams per square meter, ounces per square yard, whatever), they specify the total mass M of a ream of N pages of some size X ? Y . This means, you have to development college essay know four (!) values in order to understand how to calculate the (scalar) paper density M /( N ? X ? Y ). The problem is that N ? X ? Y depend on the type of paper, but are rarely stated explicitly. Example: “20 lb paper” can mean that a reference ream of 500 pages in format 24?36 in papers, has a total mass of rural development college, 20 pounds. The particular reference ream size of 24 in rainy day kids, ? 36 in ? 500 pages = 278.70912 m?/ream is often used in news-print applications. With 453.59237 g/lb and 278.70912 m?/ream, we get a conversion factor of about 1 lb/ream = 1.63 g/m?. But that factor applies only for the news-print reference ream size 24?36 in, which is by no means universal! Example: If you look instead at college essay U.S. Day Kids? “Letter” office paper, “20 lb paper” means something very different. Development Essay? Here, the reference ream size is usually 17 in ? 22 in ? 500 pages = 120.6449 m?/ream, which corresponds to four actual reams. And so the conversion factor becomes 1 lb/ream = 3.7597 g/m?, meaning that for example 20 lb/ream = 75.19 g/m? and chemistry marble chips 24 lb/ream = 90.23 g/m?.
It is a big pain if you have to do these conversions yourself and you really should complain to paper suppliers who still do not manage to communicate simple g/m? values (commonly called “grammage” in both English and French) for their products. Before I forget it: readers fascinated by the idea of some Europeans using A6 as a toilet paper size might also be interested to hear that the U.S. have for the same application field a standard square format of 4.5?4.5 in = 114?114 mm, which is for rural development instance documented in New Jersey Specification No. 7572-01 (May 1997), section 2.3. Below follow some links to various other on-line locations that will help you to enter the ISO paper format world. The Guide to essay International Paper Sizes by EDS Inc. describes ISO, JIS, and development college non-metric paper formats Brian Forte: A4 vs US Letter and Paper sizes for screenplay presentation Making Postscript and Acrobat Files International by Jacob Palme explains the problems caused by paper the difference between U.S.
Letter and ISO A4 laser printer paper formats Imperial Paper and rural Book Sizes Some very nice A4 paper artwork by Peter Callesen. Although it is still rarely advertised, ISO A4 laser printer and copying paper, as well as suitable files and folders, are available today from chemistry marble coursework, many U.S. office supply companies. A4 paper and supplies have been regularly ordered in the U.S. for many years, especially by rural companies and organizations with a lot of international correspondence, including patent lawyers, diplomats, universities, and some government agencies. Many of the larger stationery chains do offer at least one type of A4 paper in their catalogues. Often the only type of A4 paper available is a higher-quality brand: the studies research paper type of paper one might prefer for important documents, such as international patent applications. The U.S.-manufactured laser-printer paper perhaps most widely available in A4 format appears to be “Hammermill Fore MP White” (search for order code HAM103036), but there are others as well. Development College Essay? If the shop assistant is unfamiliar with “A4 paper”, try asking for “210 mm ? 297 mm”, “8 1/4 in ? 11 3/4 in”, “international size”, or “European size” paper. When I first wrote this page in 1996 while I lived in the U.S., most shops there did not keep A4 paper on stock routinely and mythology over dad might have to order it first. Many were only able to order entire boxes of 10 reams (5000 sheets) and many shop assistants were unfamiliar with the college essay ISO paper-size system. I am being told that the cultural research situation has improved quite a bit during the college essay last decade and marble that A4 paper and accessories are now a lot easier to obtain, but are still considered specialty items.
If you still cannot find any supply for A4 paper in development college essay, your area, then try for example the do my assignment for me do my for me following vendors in rural development college, North America, who have confirmed to have A4 paper or related articles on stock for change footer fast delivery: Empire Imports Inc., European Office Supplies, P.O. Box 2728, Amherst, MA 01004-2728, phone 1-800-544-4744, fax 1-800-835-5140, has a very good selection of A4 filebinders, ISO hole punches, A4 paper, etc. Try their A4 starter kit. European Office Solutions Inc., 6103 Silken Laumann Way, Mississauga, Ontario L5V 1A1, Canada, phone 1-877-929-9713, sells A4 copier paper and many accessories. Office Depot sells Hammermill Fore DP Paper, 8 1/4 x 11 3/4, 20 Lb., 96 Brightness, Ream Of 500 Sheets, Item #: 261782 Staples has recently started to offer A4 paper (e.g., HammerMill Fore MP Premium Multi-Function Paper A4-Size, item no. HAM103036), A4 ring binders, A4 sheet protectors, and rural other international size office accessories. (You can select “Paper size 8.27 x 11.69” on the U.S. web site to find A4 products.) OfficeMax sells X-9 Multiuse Copy Paper, 92 Bright, 500 Sheets/Ream, A4, 20 lb.. Xpedx operate a chain of paper stores in the U.S. (mainly in industrial or commercial areas) and store A4 paper as a regular stock item. IKEA has been reported to sell in its U.S. stores not only filing cabinets that are designed for both A4 and U.S. “Letter”, but also frames, office paper and other office supplies in both ISO and U.S. format. Short Essay Rainy Day Kids? Hammermill Fore MP White Office Paper, 20-lb.Sub., 210mm x 297mm, Internat’l A4 Xerox, sells A4 paper (e.g., “Premium Multipurpose 4024, A4” or “Business 4200, A4”, order no. Rural Essay? 3R2594) for laser printers and copying machines. GRAYTEX PAPERS, phone 1-800-813-5828, are another US supplier of A3, A4, and A5 papers. more on-line paper vendors can easily be found via the Yahoo!
Internet directory. This is just a small, arbitrary collection of some North American paper vendors that offer ISO format paper or related supplies. This text summarizes and explains the content of the following international standards: ISO 216:1975, Writing paper and certain classes of thesis, printed matter — Trimmed sizes — A and B series. ISO 269:1985, Correspondence envelopes — Designation and sizes. ISO 623:1974, Paper and board — Folders and rural files — Sizes. ISO 838:1974, Paper — Holes for general filing purposes — Specifications. Write Paper? ISO 7943-1:1987, Overhead Projectors — Projection stages — Dimensions. The following standards contain related information but are not covered here completely: ISO 217:1995, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and tolerances for primary and supplementary ranges, and indication of development college, machine direction.
ISO 328:1974, Picture postcards and lettercards — Size. Do My Assignment For Me Do My For Me? ISO 353:1975, Processed writing paper and certain classes of printed matter — Method of expression of rural development college essay, dimensions. Research? ISO 416:1974, Picture postcards — Area reserved for the address. Rural Development Essay? ISO 478:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series — ISO primary range. ISO 479:1975, Paper — Untrimmed sizes — Designation and rainy day kids tolerances. ISO 593:1974, Paper — Untrimmed stock sizes for the ISO-A Series — ISO supplementary range. ISO 618:1974, Paper — Articles of stationery that include detachable sheets — Overall trimmed sizes. These standards are available from. Case postale 56. 1, rue de Varembe.
CH-1211 Geneve 20. fax: +41 22 733 34 30. The most comprehensive source of information about the rural development essay ISO and conflict management research North American paper formats and college many related standards, as well as their respective histories, is the write cultural book Max Helbig, Winfried Hennig: DIN-Format A4 – Ein Erfolgssystem in Gefahr. Beuth-Kommentare, Deutsches Institut fur Normung, Beuth Verlag, 1988, 144 pages, ISBN 3-410-11878-0, DIN also produced a brief German prospectus with information about the rural college essay history of the research paper DIN paper sizes: Die Geschichte der Papierformate.
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5 Tips for a Top Essay on the New SAT. For students taking the current SAT (which will continue to development essay, be administered through January 2016), the essay is change thesis a mandatory 25-minute challenge that begins the test. Test takers must respond to a broad (and often rather lame) philosophical question (Is it true that the college best things in life are free? or Is optimism less valuable than hard work?), usually paired with a less-than-helpful prompt explaining the writing task. Those who are well-prepared will have a few key recyclable examples in mind – Martin Luther King, Jr., The Great Gatsby, World War II, and Macbeth are perennial favorites – and be ready to quickly cobble together a few paragraphs that include a succinct introduction, one body paragraph for each of the detailed examples mentioned in the intro, and over, a snappy conclusion. Then they'll sprinkle some literary fairy dust on development college top to make their essays fly: a smattering of big words, varied punctuation, a rhetorical question perhaps to short, rouse a drowsy reader, and some quotes or statistics for extra flavor. Rural Development College! If they write something nice and long, students who follow these rules are pretty much guaranteed a score of at least 10 out of 12; that's enough to earn a perfect Writing score as long as they can also manage great scores on the multiple-choice Writing sections. Come March 2016, the game changes. A lot. At 50 minutes, the time allotted to the new SAT essay doubles the length of the old 25-minute one. Students will be expected to management papers, write more, and they’ll be given three pages of paper to use in contrast to the current two.
Instead of being administered right at the beginning of the session, the college essay new essay will come at the end of the 3-hour test. And for the first time, writing the chemistry coursework essay is optional, though students who are applying to selective colleges will probably need to complete it. The structure of the essay has changed dramatically, too, from development essay, persuasive to analytical. Reflecting this change, students will have to do a lot more reading before they begin to write. The scoring system is also new. Instead of a 1–6 scale representing a holistic judgment, the new essay will be evaluated along three specific dimensions — Reading, Analysis, and assignment, Writing — with scores of 1–4 for each of these sub-scores.
Two scorers will grade each essay, and so these six numbers (three dimensions from two readers) will be combined for a final total. These scores will not be included in the old-but-new-again 1600-point final SAT score comprising Evidence-Based Reading and rural development college essay, Writing and Math. How colleges will use the essay score in their admissions decisions is short essay day kids still an open question. Rural! The reading passages may come from academic articles, literature, essays, or speeches. The question accompanying the passage, however, will always be the essay a hero same: Write an essay in which you explain how the author builds her argument and analyze how she uses evidence, reasoning, and style to support her point. The student's task, in other words, is not to develop a case for development college, one's own opinion on the subject at hand, but, rather to coursework, evaluate the author's writing and argument. The level of difficulty of these passages is much higher than anything the rural College Board has previously used on the SAT. Do My For Me Coursework For Me! Responding to this passage and rural college essay, prompt is a task best fulfilled by a skilled analytical reader and a confident and fluid writer. After you've read the College Board's sample articles and questions, read the scored essay responses carefully. Think like the SAT scorers: Begin to analyze for conflict management, yourself why each essay got the rural development three scores it did (Reading, Analysis, and Writing).
Focus on the higher-scoring examples and look for qualities to emulate. 2. Understand the author’s position. When you are ready to write your first practice essay, be sure you understand the passage and the essence of the author's argument — not just the topic and cultural research paper, your position on it. Underline key transition words (such as, for example, furthermore, in rural college essay contrast, however, etc.) and think about how they contribute to the author’s overall stance. Underline strong phrases, powerful words, and other key points as you encounter them. Think about what the author is trying to say. Chemistry Marble Coursework! What supports the main claims in the passage? Is the evidence relevant and persuasive and development, laid out in a clear way? Are there particularly strong or weak points in write studies research paper the author's argument? Does the passage leave out important information that might persuade you as a reader?
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Try not to cultural, leave any space in the margins except for indentations to introduce new paragraphs. Do not skip lines; they could be filled with your point-earning words! For a high-scoring essay, don't forget to use some rhetorical flourishes of your own: big words, literary devices, and even statistics and quotations you’ve memorized as part of development college essay your test prep. Used judiciously, these tools can work to your advantage, just as they’ve worked to the advantage of the author of the passage you’ll be analyzing when you take the test. Follow this link to find more free advice on preparing for the SAT from Noodle Experts like Karen Berlin Ishii.
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