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NAD + -aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase candidates for 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) and β-alanine production during terminal oxidation of what analysis essay do polyamines in apple fruit. E-mail address: email@example.com Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada Search for more papers by this author 1 Present address: NutriAg Ltd., 62 Arrow Rd, North York, Ontario M9M 2L8, Canada. Corresponding author. Fax: +1 519 767 0755. First published: 18 August 2015 Full publication history DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.005 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 0 articles Check for updates. The last step of miracles polyamine catabolism involves the will analysis do oxidation of 3-aminopropanal or 4-aminobutanal via aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase. Leaving. In this study, two apple ( Malus x domestica ) AMADH genes were selected ( MdAMADH1 and what a good analysis essay, MdAMADH2 ) as candidates for encoding 4-aminobutanal dehydrogenase activity.
Maximal activity and catalytic efficiency were obtained with NAD + and 3-aminopropanal, followed by 4-aminobutanal, at cert northern pH 9.8. NAD + reduction was accompanied by what essay do, the production of GABA and β-alanine, respectively, when 4-aminobutanal and the effects, 3-aminopropanal were utilized as substrates. Md AMADH2 was peroxisomal and Md AMADH1 cytosolic. These findings shed light on the potential role of apple AMADHs in 4-aminobutyrate and β-alanine production. 4-Aminobutyrate (GABA) is a ubiquitous, non-proteinaceous four-carbon amino acid that functions in metabolism and character analysis essay do, cell signaling. GABA markedly accumulates in plants subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses including anoxia, chilling, drought, salinity and mechanical damage and is biosynthesized via two distinct pathways. Change Thesis. GABA can be derived from glutamate via pH- and calmodulin-dependent glutamate decarboxylase activity in the first step of the GABA-shunt pathway[4,5]. Alternatively, oxidation of what will analysis do putrescine and spermidine can contribute to GABA production. In dicotyledonous plants, the copper-containing amine oxidases (CuAO; EC 184.108.40.206) are responsible for the conversion of putrescine to 4-aminobutanal (ABAL), spermidine to 1,3-diaminopropane and ABAL, and 1,3-diaminopropane to 3-aminopropanal (APAL)[7,8]. ABAL is in rapid non-enzymatic equilibrium with Δ −1 -pyrroline, and the oxidation of these two metabolites is often considered to be catalyzed by the same enzyme, generally referred to as NAD + -dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH, EC 220.127.116.11), leading to the biosynthesis of GABA.
The activity of plant AMADHs has generally been determined as substrate-dependent NADH production and the effects, there is only preliminary evidence, using excised tissue or crude protein extract, for the production of GABA from ABAL[9,10]. A Good Character Analysis Do. AMADHs are classified into several different aldehyde dehydrogenase families (ALDH9, ALDH10, ALDH25, ALDH26 and ALDH27)[11,12]. ALDH9 enzymes are found in animals, fungi and write about, bacteria, whereas ALDH10 enzymes are found in will a good, plants and bacteria, and ALDH25, ALDH26 and ALDH27 enzymes are found in bacteria. All plant AMADHs classified as ALDH10 display 7085% sequence identity to each other and 3539% sequence identity with bacterial, fungal or mammal orthologs from the other families. Genome analysis of several higher plant species has revealed two homologous AMADH genes per species, with the exception of cucumber, grape and maize. Historically, the AMADHs have been frequently designated as 4-aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-guanidinobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, betaine aldehyde (BAL) dehydrogenase or trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, depending on substrate preference. Missihoun et al. reported the existence of of quran essay two putative AMADH genes in Arabidopsis , AtALDH10A8 and AtALDH10A9 , although it was possible to what character essay generate and change thesis footer, purify recombinant At ALDH10A9 only in will a good character analysis essay do, sufficient quantities for demonstration of NAD + reduction in the presence of BAL, ABAL or APAL. Furthermore, these authors suggested that At ALDH10A8 and At ALDH10A9 are targeted to leucoplast and peroxisome, respectively. A Collection. Study of the biochemical properties of plant AMADHs has become attractive because of the potential involvement of these enzymes in what will character essay, important physiological processes.
For example, Basmati or Jasmine rice, which lacks a functional ABAL dehydrogenase protein, acetylate ABAL (or its cyclic form Δ 1 -pyrroline), resulting in the accumulation of 2-acetyl-Δ 1 -pyrroline, a potent component of rice fragrance. Plant AMADHs also catalyze the biosynthesis of osmoprotectants such as glycine betaine via the oxidation of BAL in the chloroplast stroma[14,18]. Other research has described the miracles essay accumulation of GABA in fruits, particularly apple, stored under controlled atmosphere conditions, which include low temperature, low O 2 and elevated CO 2 (03 C, 12.5 kPa O 2 , 220 kPa CO 2 )[6,19,20]. Previous research has demonstrated that the peroxisomal MdAO1 gene is a good analysis essay, highly expressed in apple fruit and engineering dissertation, the encoded protein prefers diamines such 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine as substrates. What Analysis Essay. In the present study, two AMADH genes were identified and cloned from the essay ALDH10 gene family (designated as MdAMADH1 and MdAMADH2 ). These two genes were heterologously expressed and the resultant recombinant proteins were purified and biochemically characterized. Both proteins catalyzed the NAD + -dependent oxidation of APAL and ABAL to β-alanine and GABA, respectively, but BAL was a very poor substrate.
Transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions in Arabidopsis protoplasts revealed that Md AMADH2 is do, peroxisomal, whereas Md AMADH1 is cytosolic. Details of the cloning strategy and primer list are provided in theSupplementary Materials and Methods. 2.2 MdAMADH expression in thesis footer, various plant organs. Total RNA was extracted from the frozen powder of mature fruit, fully expanded leaves, and opened flowers as described previously. One microgram of Dnase I (Ambion) treated total RNA was used for first-strand cDNA synthesis with Oligo( dT ) 20 and Superscript III (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) at what character analysis do 50 C for 30 min followed by 55 C, according to the manufacturer's protocol. Quantitative real time PCR was conducted as described previously. Relative expression and data analysis were determined using the 2 −ΔCt method and the apple Elongation factor 1-α ( MdEF-1α , Apple Genome Database MDP0000294265), as a superior housekeeping gene that is constitutively expressed[22,23]. The efficiency of the primer pairs was determined and only pairs with 90105% efficiency were selected for further experiments. Two technical replicates were averaged for each biological replicate, and the mean of three biological replicates was determined for each organ. Write An Essay About Your. Primer sequences utilized in gene expression of MdAMADH1 , MdAMADH2 and MdEF-1α are listed inSupplementary Table S1.
2.3 Expression and purification of recombinant proteins. Escherichia coli strain BL21 cells (EMD Millipore) were transformed with standard transformation methods. Recombinant protein expression was induced by adding 0.4 mM isopropyl β- d -1-thiogalactopyranoside to the Lysogeny broth medium supplemented with 50 μg mL −1 ampicillin after attaining an OD 600 of 0.5. The cells were harvested 4 h after induction and then stored at −80 C. Bacterial lysis and what a good character do, purification of recombinant protein were performed as described elsewhere. Fractions containing high protein levels were pooled and precipitated on ice by slowly adding ammonium sulfate, with gentle stirring, to 80% saturation.
Total proteins were visualized by SDSPAGE gel electrophoresis, followed by staining with Coomassie Blue R-250 using standard protocols. Immunoblot analysis was based on a semi-dry method using a mouse monoclonal IgG against the His probe (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, 1:1000) and leaving history northern, an anti-mouse IgGAlkaline Phosphatase (Sigma, 1:10,000) as primary and secondary antibodies, respectively. The Alkaline Phosphatase Conjugate Substrate Kit (Bio-Rad) was used to visualize fusion proteins. Enzymatic activity was assayed as the character analysis essay do substrate-dependent production of NADH or GABA and β-alanine. Details are provided in theSupplemental Materials and Methods. 2.5 Transient transformation of Arabidopsis cell suspension protoplasts.
Protoplasts were prepared from Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture ecotype Col-0 as described previously. Of Homework. N- and C-terminal GFP-fusion plasmids containing apple AMADHs were co-transformed with either mCherry peroxisome (pRTL2/Cherry-PTS1), or cytosolic red fluorescent protein (RFP) (pRTL2-MCS-RFP-stop) marker. Protoplasts were transformed using polyethylene glycol 4000 (Sigma) as described previously[29,30]. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed with an upright Leica DM 6000B microscope connected to a Leica TCS SP5 system. The excitation/emission scan settings were 488 nm/505 nm for the mGFP channel and 543 nm/610 nm for the RFP/mcherry channel. What Will. Modulation of laser light intensity and time-lapse scanning was performed using the Leica software (LAS AF). 3.1 Sequence comparison, conserved motifs and phylogenetic relationship of MdAMADHs and some characterized AMADHs.
In silico analysis of the engineering apple genome database revealed two putative members of the ALDH10 gene family. Full length genes were cloned using apple fruit cDNA, followed by will a good, rapid amplification of cDNA ends. These genes were designated by the common names MdAMADH1 (GenBank Acc. Leaving Cert History Northern. No. KP218040) and MdAMADH2 (GenBank Acc. No. KP218041) for what will a good essay do our purposes, but were recently classified by the ALDH nomenclature committee as ALDH10A9 and ALDH10A8, respectively. MdAMADH1 and MdAMADH2 encode proteins of 55.0 and footer, 54.6 kDa, respectively, and what analysis essay, are 94.8% identical to each other. Md AMADH1 shares 82.6% identity with A. thaliana At ALDH10A8 and 79.1% identity with At ALDH10A9, whereas Md AMADH2 shares 82.8% identity with At ALDH10A8 and 80.5% identity with At ALDH10A9.
Comparison of the leaving cert essays putative AMADHs from apple with characterized AMADHs from other plant species reveals that apple and Arabidopsis AMADH isoforms are very similar to each other, suggesting that the two members of the what a good analysis ALDH10 family in various species are the help result of independent gene duplication. Sequence comparisons indicate that apple AMADHs possess three highly conserved catalytic residues (N162, E260 and C294, Md AMADH numbering), which form the will a good character analysis essay active site in Ps AMADHs, and two conserved aspartate residues located at the entrance of the a collection of essays substrate channel (D110, D113), as well as Y163 and W288, which are considered essential for high-affinity binding of ω-aminoaldehydes such as APAL (Supplementary Fig. S1). What Will A Good Analysis Do. Together, these data suggest that Md AMADHs are typical AMADHs in the ALDH10 family. The Effects Of Homework. 3.2 Expression analysis of MdAMADHs.
The levels of MdAMADH1 or MdAMADH2 expression were similar across fruit, leaves and will a good character essay do, flowers (Fig. Leaving Northern Ireland. 1 ). However, the expression of MdAMADH1 was two to three times that for MdAMADH2 in all organs studied. Organ-specific expression of what a good character analysis essay do two MdAMADH genes. Transcript abundance in corresponding organs was quantified by real-time RT-PCR using gene-specific primers and normalized to a housekeeping gene, EF-1α . Data represent the mean ± S.E. of three biological replicates. 3.3 Biochemical properties and substrate specificity of apple AMADHs. Citing Of Essays. The cDNAs for MdAMADH1 , MdAMADH2 were individually expressed in E. Will A Good Do. coli and the recombinant His-tagged proteins purified to homogeneity, as indicated by Coomassie blue staining and citing a collection, immunoblot analysis of the soluble and affinity-purified fractions (Supplementary Fig. S2).
Enzyme activity was determined as the production of NADH during the oxidation of APAL, ABAL or BAL; activity with BAL was detected only what a good character essay do, after increasing the protein concentration in change footer, the enzymatic reaction to ten times the level used for the APAL-dependent reaction (i.e., 100 nM). Will Character Analysis Essay Do. Initial measurements of maximal BAL-dependent activity were two to three orders of change footer magnitude less than those for APAL and therefore BAL was omitted from the kinetic studies. Stability tests revealed that recombinant apple AMADH proteins retained their enzymatic activity for character do several months after ammonium sulfate precipitation and storage at −80 C. The activities of Md AMADH1and Md AMADH2 displayed a sharp pH optimum at pH 9.8, a similar pattern over the pH range 711, and 20% of their maximal activity at pH 8 (Fig. 2 ). The maximal APAL-dependent activities of Md AMADH1 and Md MADH2 with saturating NADP + were only 1020% of those with saturating NAD + (data not shown). Write An Essay Your Life. Activity of Md AMADHs as a function of pH. Will A Good Character Analysis Essay Do. Assays were run at room temperature with HEPESGlycine buffer, 1 mM ABAL and 1 mM NAD + . Activity is expressed as a percent of the engineering dissertation help activity at the pH optimum (100%: 1.2 and what character analysis essay do, 1.5 μmol −1 min −1 mg −1 for Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2, respectively).
Data represent the mean of four technical replicates from a typical enzyme preparation. NAD + -dependent activities at pH 9.8 demonstrated that Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2 display partial substrate inhibition for footer both APAL and ABAL (Table 1 ;Supplementary Fig. S3). The enzymes have approximately four to 18 times higher affinity and 65120 times higher catalytic efficiency for APAL than ABAL. APAL displays ten to 50 times stronger inhibition than ABAL across the two enzymes.
These findings are in general agreement with previous reports for what character analysis Zm AMADH1a, Zm AMADH1b, Zm AMADH2, Ps AMADH1 and Ps AMADH2[13,31]. When APAL was provided at a subsaturating level to limit substrate inhibition and allow for sufficient catalytic rates, there was a three-fold range in affinity for NAD + across the enzymes (Table 1). An Essay Life Experience. The kinetic parameters for each Md AMADH were determined using a typical enzyme preparation and what a good character analysis essay, a reaction solution containing 50 mM glycineNaOH buffer at pH 9.8, 1 mM NAD + , 10% glycerol, 10 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and various concentrations of ABAL or APAL. The data were fit to the appropriate MichaelisMenten equation using non-linear regression. The kinetic curves are shown inSupplementary Fig. S3.
V max (μmol min −1 mg −1 protein), K m (μM), catalytic efficiency ( k cat / K m ) and substrate inhibition constant ( K is of quran essay, , μM) are shown for each substrate or coenzyme, as appropriate. NAD + dependence was estimated in the presence of 40 μM APAL to minimize substrate inhibition; therefore, these parameters are apparent values. To confirm the biochemical function of the character essay do Md AMADHs, ABAL or APAL was supplied to of homework the recombinant proteins in vitro at concentrations approximately two times their corresponding K m values in order to minimize substrate inhibition. The production of GABA or β-alanine was readily detectable within 30 s after initiating the reactions, and the accumulation of these products over time depended on enzyme concentration and substrate preference (Fig. 3 ). Notably, the estimated initial reaction rates were similar to those obtained by monitoring NADH production (Supplementary Fig. S3). What Character Analysis. Furthermore, the accumulation of β-alanine rapidly reached a plateau, even though 5669% of the substrate remained, suggesting that enzymatic activity was subject to product inhibition (Fig. 3).
Production of GABA and β-alanine by recombinant Md AMADH1 (A) and Md AMADH2 (B) incubated with ABAL or APAL. For assay of ABAL-dependent activities, the citing a collection 5 mL reactions contained 50 nM protein, 1 mM NAD + and will do, 200 ( Md AMADH1) or 300 ( Md AMADH2) μM ABAL, whereas for assay of APAL-dependent activities, the cert history essays northern reactions contained 10 nM protein, 1 mM NAD + and 30 ( Md AMADH1) or 20 ( Md AMADH2) μM APAL. Data represent the mean of three technical replicates from a typical enzyme preparation. Closed and a good analysis essay, open circles represent GABA and β-alanine, respectively. A Collection Of Essays. The estimated rates of character analysis do GABA production at the effects 30 s were 0.96 and will a good character analysis essay do, 2.16 μmol min −1 mg −1 protein for Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2, respectively. The corresponding rates of of essays β-alanine production were 11.95 and 13.4 μmol min −1 mg −1 protein, respectively.
Substrate conversion after 15 min was 1217% and 3144%, respectively, for the ABAL- and analysis essay, APAL-dependent reactions. 3.4 Subcellular localization of citing of essays apple AMADHs. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the a good Md AMADHs, as well as At ALDH10A9, Os AMADH1, Os AMADH2, Zm AMADH1a, Zm AMADH1b, Zm AMADH2, Hv AMADH1, Ps AMADH1, Ps AMADH2 and Sl AMADH2 proteins possess a C-terminal canonical peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1, SKL), whereas At ALDH10A8, Hv AMADH2, So BADH and Sl AMADH1 do not (Supplementary Fig. S1). At ALDH10A8 is reported to localize to the leucoplast, whereas So BADH and Hv BBD2 are plastidial and cytosolic, respectively[18,33]. The subcellular location of Sl AMADH1 has not been studied. To examine the subcellular localization of apple AMADHs, Arabidopsis protoplasts were transformed with GFP-fusion constructs and organellar markers such as mCherry peroxisomal and thesis, RFP cytosolic were employed. The subcellular locations of the GFP-tagged AMADHs were determined by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. In all cases, both C- and will a good character analysis essay, N-terminal GFP fusion constructs were made to exclude the possibility that localization was dependent on the position of the GFP tag.
GFP- Md AMADH1 did not co-localize with the mCherry peroxisomal marker (Fig. Change Footer. 4ad), whereas GFP- Md AMADH2 displayed punctate structures and partially co-localized with the mCherry peroxisomal marker (il). This finding demonstrated that members of the apple AMADHs are present in two different subcellular compartments, the cytosol and what will character analysis essay do, the peroxisome, as described above for write an essay about several plant species. Will Character Do. This might indicate non-redundant functions for the Md AMADHs at the protein level. Md AMADH1-GFP and history essays ireland, Md AMADH2-GFP co-expressed with RFP cytosolic were exclusively localized in cytosol (Fig. 4eh and mp, respectively). Similar behavior has been observed with C-terminal GFP fusion constructs of Md AO1. This suggests that the targeting role of the C-terminus PTS1 is masked in a good do, the Md AMADH1-GFP and Md AMADH2-GFP fusion proteins by the GFP tag. Subcellular localization of miracles Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2 fusion proteins in Arabidopsis cell suspension protoplasts.
Confocal laser scanning microscopic images of essay a protoplast transformed simultaneously with plasmid expressing either GFP- Md AMADH1 (a), Md AMADH1-GFP (e), GFP- Md AMADH2 (i) or Md AMADH2-GFP (m) (i.e., the miracles of quran first column) and mCherry peroxisomal marker (b and what a good analysis do, j) or RFP cytosolic marker (f and n) (i.e., the an essay about second column). What Will Analysis. A merged image of the write an essay your GFP and what a good character, mCherry or RFP fluorescence images is essays northern, shown in the third column (c, g, k and what will a good character, o) and of quran, co-localization of green and red fluorescence signals appears yellow. Cell morphology was observed with transmitted light microscopy and what a good essay, is shown in fourth column (d, h, i and p). Images were taken 16 h after transformation. The experiment was repeated three times with similar results. Bars represent 10 μm. GABA can be derived via the oxidative deamination of polyamines in footer, addition to the GABA-shunt pathway. A pharmacological approach estimated that the terminal oxidation of putrescine accounts for 39% of the what will a good character GABA concentration in roots of soybean seedlings exposed to life salt stress. What A Good Analysis. There is a paucity of information about the role of polyamine oxidation in GABA biosynthesis in fruit. Recently, Zarei et al. described an apple fruit Md AO1 that is miracles of quran, peroxisomal and will do, has high catalytic efficiency for 1,3-diaminopropane and putrescine to miracles essay produce APAL and will a good character analysis do, ABAL, respectively. In the present study, we identified two members of the write an essay about life experience ALDH10 protein family which encode apple AMADHs.
The pH optimum for Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2 was 9.8. These findings are consistent with the pH optima (9.410.2) of plant AMADHs that have been previously characterized (i.e., Zm AMADH1a, Zm AMADH2, Sl AMADH2, Ps AMADH1, Ps AMADH2, Sl AMADH1, Zm AMADH1b and Hv BBD1)[13,33]. It has been proposed that the what will a good character do catalytic C294 ( Md AMADH numbering) preserves its thiolate form when pH is significantly above 8 to accelerate nucleophilic attack at the substrate. The apple AMADHs studied here favored NAD + as the cofactor over NADP + with saturating APAL. Previously, Kope#x10d;ný et al. reported that the E188 residue (pea, apple or Arabidopsis AMADH numbering) is responsible for thesis footer NAD + preference (Supplementary Fig. S1), indicating that the apple AMADHs are probably NAD + -dependent enzymes. The apple AMADHs had negligible activities with BAL, findings similar to a good analysis do those previously reported for Zm AMADH1b, Zm AMADH2, Sl AMADH2 and Ps AMADHs. Of Homework. Notably, Muñoz-Clares and co-workers[14,15] demonstrated that residue position 441 (SoBADH numbering) must be occupied by A or C for efficient BAL oxidation. For example, the BAL-dependent activity of a So BADH A441I mutant is only 0.5% of that for a good character analysis the wild-type protein. This position (residue 444 based on numbering of the apple and engineering dissertation help, Arabidopsis AMADHs) is generally occupied by an Ile residue in will analysis, plant AMADHs (Supplementary Fig. S1); exceptions are Zm AMADH1a, Hv AMADH2 and So BADH, which have high affinity for BAL and of homework, where I is replaced by C, C and will a good, A, respectively[14,15], suggesting that the apple ALDH10 family proteins studied here should not be very active, if at citing a collection all, with BAL.
In the present study, we demonstrated that in vitro APAL was preferred over ABAL as a substrate (Table 1 andFig. 3). However, the compartmentation and pH optimum of the enzyme, as well as availability of the alternative substrates, would be important determinants in the functional role of the enzyme in character essay do, vivo. Notably, the of essays use of what multiple substrates (i.e., substrate ambiguity) by an enzyme is becoming a better recognized phenomenon, which is thought to essay enhance the performance of cellular functions. Subcellular localization studies of apple AMADHs were conducted using Arabidopsis cell suspension protoplasts. A majority of plant AMADHs is character essay do, targeted to the peroxisome, as indicted by the presence of the your C-terminal PTS1, but there is also evidence for plastidial and cytosolic localizations[16,18,33].
The presence of canonical PTS1 (SKL) suggests that Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2 would localize to the peroxisome. Surprisingly, the expressed Md AMADH1 fusion protein appeared to reside in the cytosol, whereas Md AMADH2 was partially targeted to the peroxisome (Fig. What Will A Good Analysis Do. 4 ). Life Experience. Notably, both proteins carry identical canonical PTS1 (SKL) and residues in will a good character essay do, close proximity. Ma and Reumann demonstrated that four and more acidic residues located in close proximity to SKL (10 amino acid upstream of SKL) are incompatible with peroxisomal targeting, altering SKL to a non-functional PTS1. The apple AMADHs possess two acidic residues in close proximity. This may explain partial localization of Md AMADH2 in the peroxisome, although the minimum number of acidic residues that are required to hinder peroxisome targeting by SKL has not been determined. Unpredictable masking of PTS1 surface exposure and competition between targeting signals are potential explanations for a non-functional SKL which could prevent Md AMADH1 from reaching the peroxisome.
Recently, it has been reported that peroxisomal proteins often exhibit dual localization and of homework, this phenomenon is more widespread than previously thought. Cytosolic AMADH1 could be retained in the cytosol by various mechanisms such protein-protein interaction, protein conformational change in response to pH, or other post-translational modifications, and then released and targeted to the organelle via stress-specific signal perception. This hypothesis would be in agreement with the marked difference between the slightly acidic pH of what will a good character essay do cytosol and the strongly alkaline pH optima of AMADHs, and with the targeting of the N-terminus and full-length protein of At ALDH10A8 to an essay about experience leucoplasts and cytosol, respectively. What Will Character Do. This point must be clarified by future study. Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, athttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.005. Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.005. This research was supported by miracles, funds to BJS from the Individual Discovery Grants Program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council () of Canada.
The authors thank Dr. Gordon J. Hoover for what will character analysis essay do conducting the amino acid analysis, Dr. Robert T. Mullen for engineering dissertation help providing the fluorescent protein-containing vectors, the ALDH nomenclature committee for designating systematic names for our apple genes, and an anonymous reviewer for providing excellent comments on what will character an earlier version of the manuscript. Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, athttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.005. FEBS Letters 589 (2015) 1873-3468 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. ABAL; 4-aminobutanal; ALDH; aldehyde dehydrogenase; AMADH; aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase; AO; amine oxidase; APAL; 3-aminopropanal; BAL; betaine aldehyde; GABA; 4-aminobutyrate; GFP; green fluorescent protein; NAD(P) + ; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate); PTS1; peroxisomal targeting signal 1; RFP; red fluorescent protein; 4-Aminobutyrate; 4-Aminobutanal; Aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase; Peroxisomal targeting signal; Polyamine; Apple. Issue online: 18 August 2015 Version of record online: 18 August 2015 Manuscript Accepted: 6 August 2015 Manuscript Revised: 4 August 2015 Manuscript Received: 25 May 2015. Supplementary information. Supplementary Materials and Methods, Figs. S1S3 and Table S1. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for citing a collection of essays the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors.
Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. Will A Good. 1 B.J. Shelp , A.W. Bown , M.D. McLean , Metabolism and functions of gamma-aminobutyric acid . Of Quran. Trends Plant Sci. What Character Analysis. , 4 , ( 1999 ), 446 452 . Thesis Footer. CrossRef | PubMed | Web of will analysis essay Science® Times Cited: 366 2 B.J. Shelp , W.L. Allan , D. Faure , Role of γ-aminobutyrate and γ-hydroxybutyrate in plant communication . F. Change Thesis Footer. Balu#x161;ka Plant-Environment Interactions ( 2009 ), Springer Heidelberg 73 84 . CrossRef 3 B.J.
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Shelp , Apple fruit copper amine oxidase isoforms: peroxisomal MdAO1 prefers diamines as substrates, whereas extracellular MdAO2 exclusively utilizes monoamines . Plant Cell Physiol. Of Homework. , 56 , ( 2015 ), 137 147 . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 1 8 J. Planas-Portell , M. Gallart , A.F. Analysis. Tiburcio , T. Altabella , Copper-containing amine oxidases contribute to change thesis terminal polyamine oxidation in character analysis do, peroxisomes and apoplast of Arabidopsis thaliana . BMC Plant Biol. , 13 , ( 2013 ), 109 CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 22 9 H. Flores , P. Filner , Polyamine catabolism in higher plants: characterization of pyrroline dehydrogenase . Plant Growth Regul. , 3 , ( 1985 ), 277 291 . Miracles Of Quran. CrossRef | CAS | Web of will essay Science® Times Cited: 97 10 B. Of Homework. Weilgat , K. Kleczkowski , Putrescine in pea seedlings . Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. What Essay Do. , 40 , ( 1971 ), 197 207 . CrossRef 11 V. Vasiliou , D.C. Thompson , C. Change Thesis Footer. Smith , M. Fujita , Y. Chen , Aldehyde dehydrogenases: from eye crystallins to metabolic disease and cancer stem cells . Chem. Biol. Interact. , 202 , ( 2013 ), 2 10 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 19 12 H. Riveros-Rosasa , L. González-Segura , A. Julián-Sánchez , Á.G. Díaz-Sánchez , R.A. Muñoz-Clares , Structural determinants of substrate specificity in aldehyde dehydrogenases . Chem. Biol. What Will. Interact. , 202 , ( 2013 ), 51 61 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 13 D. Kope#x10d;ný , R. Kon#x10d;itíková , M. Tylichová , A. Vigouroux , H. Moskalíková , M. Soural , M. #x160;ebela , S. Moréra , Plant ALDH10 family: identifying critical residues for substrate specificity and trapping a thiohemiacetal intermediate . J. Biol.
Chem. , 288 , ( 2013 ), 9491 9507 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 7 14 Á.G. Díaz-Sánchez , L. An Essay About Life. González-Segura , C. What Will A Good Character Essay Do. Mújica-Jiménez , E. Of Essays. Rudiño-Piñera , C. Montiel , L.P. A Good Analysis Essay Do. Martínez-Castilla , R.A. Muñoz-Clares , Amino acid residues critical for of homework specificity for betaine aldehyde of the will a good character plant ALDH10 isoenzyme involved in the synthesis of glycine betaine . Plant Physiol. , 158 , ( 2012 ), 1570 1582 . Leaving History Essays Northern. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 19 15 R.A. Muñoz-Clares , H. Riveros-Rosas , G. Garza-Ramos , L. González-Segura , C. Mújica-Jiménez , A. Julián-Sánchez , Exploring the evolutionary route of the acquisition of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase activity by plant ALDH10 enzymes: implications for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine . What A Good Character Analysis Essay. BMC Plant Biol. , 14 , ( 2014 ), 149 CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 16 T.D. Missihoun , J. Schmitz , R. Write About Your. Klug , H.H.
Kirch , D. Bartels , Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis with different sub-cellular localization affect stress responses . What Will A Good Analysis Do. Planta , 233 , ( 2011 ), 369 382 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 37 17 L.M. Bradbury , S.A. Gillies , D.J. Brushett , D.L. Waters , R.J. Henry , Inactivation of an aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase is responsible for fragrance in rice . Plant Mol. Essay. Biol. Will A Good Analysis. , 68 , ( 2008 ), 439 449 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 61 18 P. Weigel , E.A. Weretilnyk , A.D.
Hanson , Betaine aldehyde oxidation by spinach chloroplasts . Plant Physiol. , 82 , ( 1986 ), 753 759 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 109 19 J. History Essays Northern. Lee , D.R. Rudell , P.J. Davies , C.B. Watkins , Metabolic changes in 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-treated ‘Empire’ apple fruit during storage . Metabolomics , 8 , ( 2012 ), 742 753 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 29 20 C.P. What Will A Good Do. Trobacher , S.M. Clark , G.G. Bozzo , R.T. Mullen , J.R. DeEll , B.J. An Essay Your Life. Shelp , Catabolism of GABA in apple fruit: subcellular localization and biochemical characterization of two γ-aminobutyrate transaminases . Postharvest Biol.
Technol. , 75 , ( 2013 ), 106 113 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of what analysis essay Science® Times Cited: 12 21 K.J. Livak , T.D. Schmittigen , Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(−delta delta C ( T )) method . Methods , 25 , ( 2001 ), 402 408 . Engineering. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 39019 22 P. Pouparda , L. Parisib , C. Campiona , S. Ziadia , P. Simoneaua , A wound- and ethephon-inducible PR-10 gene subclass from apple is differentially expressed during infection with a compatible and will a good character analysis, an incompatible race of ireland Venturia inaequalis . Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. What A Good Character Do. , 62 , ( 2003 ), 3 12 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 22 23 T. Help. Czechowski , M. Stitt , T. Altmann , M.K. Udvardi , W.R. What A Good Essay Do. Scheible , Genome-wide identification and engineering, testing of superior reference genes for transcript normalization in Arabidopsis . Plant Physiol. , 139 , ( 2005 ), 5 17 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 1134 24 T. Maniatis , E.F.
Fritsch , J. Sambrook , Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual . 2nd ed. A Good Character. ( 1989 ), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Cold Spring Harbor, New York 25 W.L. Allan , B.J. Shelp , Fluctuations of γ-aminobutyrate, γ-hydroxybutyrate, and related amino acids in Arabidopsis leaves as a function of the change thesis light-dark cycle . Can. J. Bot. , 84 , ( 2006 ), 1339 1346 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 26 A. Zarei , A.P. Körbes , P. What Will Character Analysis Essay. Younessi , G. Montiel , A. Champion , J. Memelink , Two GCC boxes and AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor ORA59 in jasmonate/ethylene-mediated activation of the PDF1.2 promoter in Arabidopsis . Plant Mol. Biol. , 75 , ( 2011 ), 321 331 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 58 27 S.L.
Ching , S.K. Gidda , A. Of Homework. Rochon , O.R. van Cauwenberghe , B.J. Shelp , R.T. Mullen , Glyoxylate reductase isoform 1 is localized in the cytosol and not peroxisomes in plant cells . J. Integr. Will A Good Character Analysis. Plant Biol. , 54 , ( 2012 ), 152 168 . Leaving Cert History. Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 10 28 J.M. Shockey , S.K. Gidda , D.C.
Chapital , J.C. Kuan , P.K. Dhanoa , J.M. Bland , S.J. Rothstein , R.T. Mullen , J.M. Dyer , Tung tree DGAT1 and what a good character, DGAT2 have nonredundant functions in triacylglycerol biosynthesis and are localized to different subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum . Plant Cell , 9 , ( 2006 ), 2294 2313 . Engineering. CrossRef | CAS | Web of what will a good character analysis Science® Times Cited: 212 29 M. Axelos , C. Gurie , L. Mazzolini , C. Bardet , B. Engineering Help. Lescure , A protocol for transient gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures . Plant Physiol. Biochem. , 30 , ( 1992 ), 123 128 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 267 30 J. Schirawski , S. Planchais , A.L. Haenni , An improved protocol for the preparation of protoplasts from an established Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture and infection with RNA of turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus: a simple and reliable method . J. Analysis. Virol. Methods , 86 , ( 2000 ), 85 94 . Miracles Of Quran Essay. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 28 31 M. Tylichová , D. Kope#x10d;ný , S. Moréra , P. Briozzo , R. Will A Good Do. Lenobel , J. Of Homework. Snégaroff , M. #x160;ebela , Structural and functional characterization of plant aminoaldehyde from Pisum sativum with a broad specificity for natural and what a good character analysis essay do, synthetic aminoaldehydes . J. Mol. Biol. , 396 , ( 2010 ), 870 882 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 24 32 D. Kope#x10d;ný , M. Tylichová , J. Snegaroff , R. Kon#x10d;itíková , H. Popelková , M. Of Quran Essay. #x160;ebela , Carboxylate and will a good analysis essay do, aromatic active-site residues are determinants of of quran essay high affinity binding of ω-aminoaldehydes to plant aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase . FEBS J. , 278 , ( 2011 ), 3130 3139 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 33 T. Fujiwara , K. Hori , K. Ozaki , Y. Yokota , S. Mitsuya , T. Character Essay. Ichiyanagi , T. Hattori , T. Citing A Collection. Takabe , Enzymatic characterization of peroxisomal and cytosolic betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in barley . Physiol.
Plant. , 134 , ( 2008 ), 22 30 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 33 34 S.G. Xing , Y.B. Jun , Z.W. Hau , L.Y. What Character Essay Do. Liang , Higher accumulation of #x263;-aminobutyric acid induced by of homework, salt stress through stimulating the activity of diamine oxidase in Glycine max (L.) Merr. roots . Plant Physiol. What Will Character Essay. Biochem. , 45 , ( 2007 ), 560 566 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of write about life experience Science® Times Cited: 58 35 K.L. Deyman , C.J. Brikis , G.G. Bozzo , B.J. Shelp , Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and controlled atmosphere storage on polyamine and 4-aminobutyrate levels in ‘Empire’ apple fruit . Front.
Plant Sci. , 5 , ( 2014 ), 144 CrossRef | PubMed | Web of what analysis do Science® Times Cited: 4 36 C. Pandya , J. Farelli , D. A Collection Of Essays. Dunaway-Mariano , K.N. Allen , Enzyme promiscuity: engine of evolutionary innovation . J. What Will Analysis Essay Do. Biol. Chem. , 289 , ( 2014 ), 30229 30236 . Citing. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 15 37 C. Ma , S. Reumann , Improved prediction of peroxisomal PTS1 proteins from genome sequences based on experimental subcellular targeting analyses as exemplified for protein kinases . J. Exp. Bot. Will Do. , 59 , ( 2008 ), 3767 3779 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of a collection Science® Times Cited: 24 38 J. Ast , A.C. Stiebler , J. Freitag , M. Bölker , Dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins . Will A Good Character Analysis Essay. Front. Change. Physiol. , 4 , ( 2013 ), 297 CrossRef | PubMed | Web of what will character analysis Science® Times Cited: 17 39 M.C.
Cheng , E.J. Hsieh , J.H. Chen , H.Y. Chen , T.P. Lin , Arabidopsis RGLG2, functioning as a RING E3 ligase, interacts with AtERF53 and negatively regulates the plant drought stress response . Plant Physiol. , 158 , ( 2012 ), 363 375 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of engineering dissertation help Science® Times Cited: 41. Articles related to will character essay the one you are viewing. Cert History Essays Northern. 2017 Federation of will analysis do European Biochemical Societies.
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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to character analysis do communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in a collection of essays the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of what will analysis essay do their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the the effects Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to will character analysis do pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the a collection C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in what will character analysis essay do the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the engineering dissertation help stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the a good character essay first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the write life experience element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.
LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is a good character always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of citing a collection global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to what a good character do access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the effects of homework the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at what essay position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and thesis so on. What Will Analysis Do! Any access to thesis footer lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index.
Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. What Character Analysis Essay! This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . The Effects! Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from what character essay, those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of of homework a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an what a good analysis essay, error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the effects of homework the API can throw an will a good character analysis essay, error, for change thesis footer, instance due to will analysis a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by help calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the what a good character analysis do C API in alphabetical order.
Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the change thesis stack. The second field, p , is character analysis essay do how many elements the function pushes onto thesis footer the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the will a good essay do function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). Leaving Cert History Essays Northern! The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to what a good character analysis do lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. Footer! ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the analysis essay allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and change footer only if it cannot fill the request.
When nsize is not zero and will do osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for write an essay your life experience, the allocator function. What Will Character Essay Do! It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to leaving cert northern ireland malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and what a good essay returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the leaving cert essays northern host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first.
Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the a good do number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. Leaving Northern Ireland! The function results are pushed onto the stack when the will a good analysis do function returns. Thesis Footer! The number of what a good character results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.
The function results are pushed onto change the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is what will analysis essay considered good programming practice. Type for C functions.
In order to engineering dissertation communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and a good character analysis essay do results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in history essays northern ireland its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and character analysis essay do returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the of essays results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and will a good analysis essay do returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the dissertation help stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the analysis essay do corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.
On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the engineering dissertation help stack, pops them, and leaves the result at what will a good character analysis the top. If n is 1, the thesis result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only what a good analysis do, one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the thesis same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the character essay do stack. All values returned by func are discarded.
Creates a new empty table and miracles pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. A Good Character! This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in write life a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the do error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.
Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on a collection of essays the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. What Will Analysis Essay Do! (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector.
LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. Engineering Dissertation Help! LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in what will character do use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of change footer garbage collection. The step size is what will do controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the leaving cert history essays northern ireland collector (see §2.10). What Character Analysis Essay Do! The function returns the previous value of the pause. Essay! LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the what will essay do new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).
The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. Cert History Essays! If ud is what will a good analysis do not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the leaving cert history essays northern value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. Will A Good Analysis Essay Do! If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack.
Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the effects the top of the what will essay do stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the a collection of essays resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Will A Good Character Analysis! Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to citing a collection the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an will a good analysis essay do, empty stack). Moves the top element into change footer, the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to what a good character essay open space. Cert History Essays Northern Ireland! Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is what will a good character essay do a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the essay value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is character essay always convertible to leaving cert ireland a string), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the what will a good do value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is leaving cert essays a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the what will character do value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the dissertation semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack.
Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the a good analysis essay do chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is leaving cert ireland used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the what will character analysis state (due to lack of memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is change equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by analysis this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and about your life you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. Will Analysis Essay! When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and change pushes a key-value pair from the table at what will character essay do the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in of essays the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the what analysis do next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua.
By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the an essay your life experience configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the what a good character length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the engineering dissertation help string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for a good essay, other values, it is 0. Calls a function in leaving cert northern ireland protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an will character essay do, error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the engineering dissertation help function and its arguments from the stack.
If errfunc is will a good character analysis 0, then the citing of essays error message returned on the stack is character essay do exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an citing, error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and character analysis essay its return value will be the change thesis footer message returned on a good the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the leaving northern ireland error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the what will a good character essay stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in leaving cert essays lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto character analysis essay the stack.
When a C function is created, it is possible to change associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is will a good character do called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for miracles, n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and a good character essay pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro:
Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to the effects of homework this string. What Will A Good Analysis Essay Do! It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for citing of essays, the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. Will Essay! The conversion specifiers can only engineering dissertation help, be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in character do the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua.
A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and citing a collection it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is will a good analysis essay do equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. Miracles! In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto what will analysis the stack.
Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the the effects of homework memory at essay do s can be freed or reused immediately after the dissertation function returns. What Will Character Analysis Essay Do! The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to about life end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. A Good Character Analysis Essay! Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to miracles of quran lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and will character essay index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods).
Pushes onto citing a collection the stack the character analysis do value t[n] , where t is the value at of homework the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the what will do chunk, lua_load calls the the effects of homework reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of a good character memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is history northern called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of what analysis any size greater than zero.
Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . Essays Northern! It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the what will character elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to of homework be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is a good analysis neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the effects the given valid index and v is the a good do value at help the top of the will a good stack. This function pops the write experience value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the what will analysis essay do new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the miracles essay stack and what a good essay sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to the effects of homework this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed.
Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. What Will Character Analysis Do! The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about thesis a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the what a good analysis essay do first argument to every function in citing the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an analysis essay do, error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Write About Your Life Experience! Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and will character essay do nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to about your life accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to essay do the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string.
If len is engineering not NULL , it also sets *len with the a good character do string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . The Effects Of Homework! If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the what a good character Lua state. Your! This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in will analysis essay do its body. Of Homework! Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a good character essay the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for engineering dissertation help, debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to what essay do NULL . Converts the miracles of quran value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. What Will Essay Do! Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the effects the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to what will character analysis do be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the cert essays northern writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to analysis . Yields a coroutine. This function should only change, be called as the what essay return expression of a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to of homework lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the will character analysis essay do construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the the effects interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for analysis essay do, later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of engineering help lua_Debug have the what essay following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the the effects function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. What Will A Good Analysis Essay! what : the ireland string Lua if the function is analysis a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to change thesis -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the character do function was called to find a suitable name.
If it cannot find a name, then name is set to an essay life NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the character essay do current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the dissertation help parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and will a good essay do start the what string with the an essay experience character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in will a good analysis essay do the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in the effects which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in what character analysis do the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto write about your experience the stack the what function that is running at a collection of essays the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.
Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to will a good essay inspect (1 is the write an essay about your first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the will character essay last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and change footer returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals).
Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the what a good essay activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the write about your life function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about analysis a closure's upvalue. Leaving Essays Northern! (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an what will a good character do, upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to help the closure in the stack. What Character Do! (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of the effects upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. What Character Do! Lua identifies these events with the essay following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in what a good character analysis essay do ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is of homework useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. What Will A Good Character Analysis Essay Do! Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the leaving history northern ireland debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on what essay do which events the write your life experience hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is will character analysis only meaningful when the footer mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is character analysis essay do called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the history ireland interpreter calls a function. The hook is will called just after Lua enters the new function, before the essay function gets its arguments.
The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the what will a good character analysis essay do interpreter is about to start the engineering dissertation help execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). What Character Essay! (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the cert essays interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the what will a good character value of a local variable of change thesis footer a given activation record.
Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at what will analysis the top of the engineering stack to the variable and returns its name. A Good Character Analysis Essay Do! It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the dissertation value at what a good the top of the stack to the effects the upvalue and what will a good analysis essay returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is of quran essay greater than the number of upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and what will a good essay do Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the a collection of essays auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in what will a good analysis the auxiliary library are built on top of the write an essay about your experience basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. What Will Character Do! Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for citing of essays, other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the what will character analysis essay do auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to history essays northern ireland by s with length l to what will a good the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros.
Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to of quran the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the a good only function on life string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on will analysis do the stack, which is the value to be added to engineering dissertation the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on what will analysis essay do the top of the stack.
During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the change stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. What Will A Good Analysis Essay! (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is change footer back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the character analysis do final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . Leaving Ireland! This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and what character analysis passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the cert history essays function has an argument of what a good essay do any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the the effects function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the character function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to the effects of homework a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is what a good character do not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the change function argument narg is what will character analysis essay a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is leaving cert history a string and searches for what will character analysis essay, this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the history essays ireland string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is what will a good essay do nil . This is of homework a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to analysis do use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an miracles of quran, error if the what will a good analysis stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to engineering go into the error message. Checks whether the will character analysis function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the write experience function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for will character analysis do, the encoding of cert history ireland types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the character analysis type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:
It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in an essay your life experience case of errors. Loads and will character analysis runs the given string. Citing A Collection! It is defined as the analysis do following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in a collection of essays case of errors. Raises an error. Will Character Essay! The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is engineering available.
This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the what will a good analysis object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and leaving history pushes nothing. Pushes onto will do the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Miracles Of Quran! Pushes the will analysis essay resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. Dissertation Help! This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the what will a good essay do same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for an essay experience, debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file.
As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in what will essay do the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the miracles of quran chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to analysis the registry with key tname , and change footer returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on will character essay do the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of of quran fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into what a good essay, the given state. If the function argument narg is of homework a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is what will a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is the effects nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an what will a good analysis, error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the an essay your experience results's length. If the a good essay function argument narg is footer a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is what character essay nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an leaving cert northern ireland, error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
Returns an address to what a good character analysis essay a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the a collection size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on what will a good character analysis essay the top of the stack. Creates and write about life experience returns a reference , in a good do the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at essay the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the what will a good analysis essay function name and func is a pointer to miracles of quran the function. Any array of what a good character analysis do luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.
When called with libname equal to the effects of homework NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the character do global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by change luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto what a good character essay do the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at dissertation help level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the what will character analysis essay following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to change footer build a prefix for error messages.
The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the what a good analysis essay C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to write an essay about the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to will a good character do outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and the effects of homework package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the will analysis do C host program should call the life luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the a good analysis essay do table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in the effects lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to what a good character analysis Lua. If you do not include this library in the effects of homework your application, you should check carefully whether you need to what will do provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector.
It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the engineering default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. Analysis Do! count: returns the total memory in use by engineering dissertation help Lua (in Kbytes). Will A Good Character! step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Essay! If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the what character analysis essay previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for write life, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the character previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the effects of homework the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the what will a good analysis do function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message.
If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Help! Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to character essay get its pieces. Dissertation! Each call to what a good essay do func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message.
The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and the effects debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and will a good essay do run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an of quran essay, index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and will character analysis its associated value. Dissertation Help! When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is what will essay empty. The order in which the citing indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)
The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the what a good analysis table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal.
Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . Leaving Cert Northern! This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the what a good character call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. Essay! In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is what will do a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . An Essay About Experience! Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to what will essay be used by citing of essays the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . What Will A Good Analysis Do! setfenv returns the given function.
As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from dissertation help, C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. What Will Character Essay Do! If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and thesis 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the what will analysis letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1).
In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by miracles of quran the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and what a good character do returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. Leaving History Ireland! In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from what a good character, err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an the effects, object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. What A Good Essay! The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the the effects coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread.
Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to what a good essay the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the miracles error. Suspends the essay execution of the the effects calling coroutine.
The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in will a good analysis essay do a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in about your experience package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the what will a good character do global name and of quran the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the what essay given name, t._M with the write your life module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).
Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the a good character analysis do current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is leaving cert northern a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of will a good analysis essay do field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to citing a collection be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is character do already loaded. Leaving Cert History Northern! If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is what a good analysis essay based on the default configuration for dissertation help, package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . What A Good Essay! If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the miracles of quran loader. Otherwise require searches for what a good character essay do, a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . Thesis Footer! If that also fails, it searches for what character analysis, a C loader using the miracles of quran essay path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is what will character essay do found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . Essay! If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to what a good analysis package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to of essays this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an what will analysis, error. The path used by citing a collection of essays require to search for will a good essay do, a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the the effects environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded.
When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is what a good character essay not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by change require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by what character analysis essay semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the an essay life module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name.
So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for what a good character analysis do, a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for engineering help, a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the analysis essay string. the searcher for thesis, module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the will a good essay do library to be used as the loader.
The name of this C function is the citing a collection of essays string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by will character analysis do an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the cert module name is a.v1-b.c , the what essay function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an dissertation, all-in-one loader . Will Essay Do! It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for thesis, a C library for what will a good analysis essay do, a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for citing, the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . What Character Essay! Inside this library, looks for engineering, a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the will character analysis essay do package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the write an essay about experience C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by what will a good character analysis essay the C library (which may depend on citing of essays the C compiler and linker used).
This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the character essay do dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in write an essay your life experience luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for what a good character analysis essay, module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the engineering help global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for what will a good essay do, string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the of homework end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on.
The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. Character Analysis! For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the leaving cert northern ireland given function, so that a later loadstring on what character essay this string returns a copy of the miracles essay function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in character do a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to essays ireland the q option.
As an what a good character, example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for a collection, replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the a good analysis n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for citing, the whole match.
The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the what do table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is leaving essays northern ireland a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in will a good character analysis essay order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the an essay about your experience whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is will a good character analysis essay do used as the about your experience replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is what will analysis essay kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is citing a collection of essays used to a good essay represent a set of engineering dissertation help characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. What Will! %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. Your Life Experience! %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is a good character analysis essay do any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by change footer a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. What A Good Analysis Do! [ set ] : represents the thesis footer class which is the will a good character analysis union of all characters in set . Dissertation Help! A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.
For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of what a good analysis do set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the cert history northern ireland class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.
The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of will do characters in essay the class. Will A Good! These repetition items will always match the miracles essay longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and analysis essay do 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the a collection x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the what a good character analysis do string from left to right, counting +1 for engineering, an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the what will a good character analysis do first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the write an essay about your life item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of a good analysis pattern items. Of Homework! A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the analysis match at change thesis footer the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.
A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the what will a good analysis essay do subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Essay! Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the essay result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary.
The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the write an essay about life whole table.) Removes from what will a good character analysis do, table the element at essays northern position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for what character analysis essay do, pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of the effects of homework x (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the will character do arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to change thesis footer be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a good character analysis essay do x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to change thesis x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an what will character essay, integer and the absolute value of citing of essays m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of will a good character analysis essay x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.
Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the write about life experience angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in character the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of history northern ireland x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)
Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of what a good character analysis do x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to engineering dissertation set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over will a good essay do, these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the write your life file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and character io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files.
Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and thesis footer a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.
In case of will character analysis errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an write an essay your experience, error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the a good character analysis default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the engineering help loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message.
The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from what a good character analysis essay do, this program (if mode is r , the default) or to of quran essay write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is what will a good essay system dependent and is not available on all platforms.
Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for write your experience, a temporary file. This file is character essay do opened in update mode and citing it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is essay do called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below).
The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. Write An Essay Your Experience! number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
The default value for will character essay, whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the the effects of homework file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the a good character analysis essay buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the change result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in what will analysis do bytes. The default is an appropriate size.
Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is of quran essay implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the will character analysis following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is history essays ireland not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is what equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is miracles essay exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is what will character analysis do system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise.
Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to miracles of quran essay terminate the host program. What A Good Character Analysis Essay! The default value for code is the footer success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is what character essay not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. The Effects Of Homework! If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . Will A Good Character Essay! If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an change, optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is will a good essay all . The function returns the citing name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the what character do empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale.
If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the leaving cert history name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. What Essay Do! This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the write an essay about your life experience os.date function). The returned value is what character a number, whose meaning depends on about your experience your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the will a good character meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for of homework, a temporary file.
The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. Will A Good Character Analysis Essay Do! (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the change functionality of the what will character essay debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.
Please resist the change thesis temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. What Will Character! Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about cert northern ireland Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. What Will Character! All functions that operate over miracles of quran, a thread have an optional first argument which is the a good thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the cert essays northern ireland current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what])
Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the what will a good analysis call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the the effects current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a good do a number larger than the number of miracles essay active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by what a good analysis essay do lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the of quran option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the what will a good table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and write your experience the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the what essay name and the value of the local variable with index local of the change thesis function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.)
Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the what a good character analysis do metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . Essay! The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. What Will Analysis Essay! The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the thesis footer hook is called every time Lua returns from what analysis, a function; l : the an essay about your hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from will a good character analysis essay, zero, the hook is a collection called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . What Will A Good! In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the of homework value value to will analysis do the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the citing of essays stack. What Character Essay Do! The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the a collection local variable.
Sets the metatable for the given object to what will a good character analysis the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the essay given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an what will character do, extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is citing a collection of essays also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. Will Essay Do! The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is:
The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the miracles of quran essay given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and what will do as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . Of Homework! If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. What Essay Do! Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call.
the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is essays ireland used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements).
Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the what essay do stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. The Effects Of Homework! If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1.
You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in will character essay the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. An Essay About! The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in what a good character essay do these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated.
Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the history northern ireland new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. What A Good Character! Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead.
The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and your life experience luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by a good character analysis luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the cert northern ireland given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. Character Analysis Essay Do! (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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essay about tsunami Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to warn people about a natural disaster and what will essay, expect them all to understand and take action in time. Dissertation. Just around ten minutes before the tsunami hit, the city of Sendai was advised to take refuge, and fast (Japan earthquake/tsunami 3). Unfortunately that was much too late. People were seen speeding away from the incoming water, and scurrying to what analysis essay, escape the of essays, rivers that their streets were becoming. From higher grounds, videos were taken of the what will a good character essay, incoming waves. Houses.
Essay about cert northern, The Indian Ocean Tsunami. tobacco, sugar, cocoa, and other spices provided the world with treats and delicacies for both young and essay, old. The National Geographic article on the tsunami stated that the agricultural success depended upon a fresh water supply, steady weather, healthy soil, and quick transport to a collection of essays, the world for the perishable commodities (The Deadliest Tsunami in History? 2). A dedicated workforce to farm the will a good character analysis essay, land and transport the goods was especially critical for the smaller islands seeking to develop economically. Mega-Tsunamis: the cert history essays, Oceans Deadliest Weapon Essay. ever recorded wave. The initial height of this mega-wave was 525 meters tall (1,719), and surged over the opposite what character do, side of the bay (Miller). Luckily, this was not a much inhabited area of Alaska, and only killed two people. Another recorded mega-tsunami occurred in 1792 in Japan. The volcano, Mount Unzen, erupted causing a section of the ireland, volcano to collapse into the ocean.
The landslide caused a waved that reached 100 meters high and killed 15,000 people in a local fishing village. Five years later. A Case Study on will a good analysis essay Tsunami in India and Other Natural Disasters Essay. The largest industrial disaster to of quran essay, date is the Bhopal Disaster. 2)Traffic Accidents: A traffic collision (motor vehicle collision, motor vehicle accident, car accident, or car crash) is what analysis, when a road vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other geographical or architectural obstacle causing damage to surroundings which may be severe, injury to health or loss of life. 3)Oil Spill: An oil spill is history essays ireland, a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment.
Wow, I would never have thought I’d die at the age of sixteen. Well at least I don’t have to go to school tomorrow! I searched around the Garden of Eden; there was no shortage of sweet coconuts or juicy mangos, but where was everyone else? Could this be hell and not heaven? I mean hell doesn’t necessarily have to be a fiery cave where there’s a guy in a red cape prodding you with his trident.
I heard about what a good analysis essay, this sort of thing, my mum told me. She said hell is your. Visually: RanSquawk News Fly On The Wall Benzinga Pro 01-15 22:24: C hina's commerce minstry says 2014 combined imports and exports. 01-15 22:24: C hina's banking regulator gives rules on banks consolidating. 01-15 22:24: PRE-MARKET INDIAN STOC K NEWS: Highlights include: Tata C onsultancy (. 01-15 21:51: Japan's Finance Minister Aso says Japan must watch how central. 01-15 21:51: C hina to increase tax sessions for service outsourcing co's 01-15 21:51: SP says JPY weakness and slump. Impact of Tohuko Tsunami on Japanese and Ww Auto Supply Chain.
Location of Japanese Automotive Assembly and Parts Plants Source: Frost Sullivan Impact on cert history ireland the Japanese Light Vehicle Output IHS Automotive’ s Japanese light vehicle market forecast for 2011 has been revised down by 430,000 units to what do, 4.3m units (it was just under 4.9m units in 2010).Immediate impact of the earthquake resulted in the closure of of essays, production plants across all the Japanese manufacturers. Below is an estimate of production losses reported by IHS iSuppli Production Losses in. events happened on August 17, 1883 and was caused by a volcano called Ketimbang. Character Analysis. It was the ashes from the an essay about your life, eruption and will analysis, the strong waves from the tsunami that did the most damage. The smoke from the volcanic eruption killed around a thousand people and the waves killed approximately 36,417 people (“1883 eruption of Krakatoa”). On December 28, 1908 a great tsunami came about in Sicily and Calabria, in southern Italy.
A huge earthquake with a magnitude of 7.1 on the moment magnitude scale occurred. This. Essay on Plate Tectonics Press Release. people were injured, and 100,000 structures were damaged. History Northern. More than 600,000 individuals applied for disaster assistances. When dealing with earthquakes, there are many hazards associated with this event like ground motion, aftershocks, fires, tsunami, and what will a good essay do, flooding. Ground motion is when the shaking of the ground causes the about your, passage of seismic waves, especially surface waves, near the epicenter of the earthquake. Ground motion is responsible for the most damage during an earthquake and is thus a.
2010 Chile Earthquake Case Study Essay example. 5. Tsunami Figure 5: Tsunami Travel Times across The Pacific Ocean The main event caused significant seafloor uplift creating large tsunamis waves that radially propagated all over the Pacific Ocean away from the rupture [Figure 5] over a 30 ? arc (Yamazaki and Cheung, 2011).Chilean eye witnesses report an initial recession before the what will analysis essay, main wave followed by various smaller waves and surges (Synolakis, 2011). Eye witnesses on the offshore Juan Fernandez Archipelago described the tsunami as a “rapid. Essay on Causes and Efeects of Earthquakes. Plate slips, causing subsidence and releasing energy into cert history essays, water. The energy released produces tsunami waves. Will A Good Character Analysis. WHERE DO TSUNAMI OCCURS < Tsunamis occur most frequently in the Pacific Ocean, but are a global phenomenon; they are possible wherever large bodies of water are found, including inland lakes, where they can be caused by change footer, landslides. < Japan is a nation with the most recorded tsunamis in the world. CYCLONES < In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular. Swot Analysis of Reliance Communication Essay.
KHABAR - 2 5. What is India born and Canada based scientist T S Murthy, in what will a good character analysis do, news recently for the effects of homework a major environmental system, famous for? Tsunami Warning System* Explanatory Answer Murthy played a key role in setting up the Pacific Tsunami Warning System in 1965.. What Will Essay Do. Murthy has suggested Visakhapatanam in Andhra Pradesh as the engineering dissertation help, ideal location for setting up the what analysis, tsunami warning system. 6. Who was appointed as the new chief of India’s external espionage agency, the Research and engineering, Analysis Wing (RAW)? Hormis. uncontrollable fires, which killed approximately five-hundred people. Lastly, the tsunami swept away and flooded numerous parts of Northern Japan. The tsunami swept over cities and even engulfed an airport. The massive wave swept away homes, trucks, ships, cars, buildings, bridges, highways, and other debris (Fackler 3). The disaster in Japan devastated the land, but it also affected the people living in Japan. The nuclear disaster, tsunami, and earthquake initiated copious problems for the people living in Japan.
Essay about Avoiding Natural Disasters. transport systems and nuclear power stations to shut down prior to the occurrence of earthquakes and tsunamis, thereby containing gas leaks, the risk of fire, derailments and the release of nuclear energy. Human casualties and property destruction can be drastically reduced if strict building codes are implemented in areas prone to earthquakes, tornadoes, tsunamis and hurricanes. On Boxing Day 2003, 30,000 people died after an earthquake in a good, the Iranian town of Bam, of their actions. You cannot really take responsibility for someone else's life. Thesis Footer. But in the case of an emergency situation, like tsunami disaster, the character, context is miracles of quran, very different. The disaster affected everyone, and wasn't a foreseeable event to avoid. Character Essay Do. It's natural that people would evaluate the help, two kinds of situations in entirely different ways. Sending help to the tsunami victims is completely different from sacrificing for someone who won't bother living his own life.
You'll notice that modern ethical. Essay on Plate Tectonics Press Release. that occurs in water-saturated unconsolidated sediment due to shaking, changes in ground level- a secondary or tertiary effect that is caused by faulting, tsunami- a secondary effect that are giant ocean waves that can rapidly travel across oceans, flooding- a secondary effect that may occur due to rupture of human made dams and levees due to tsunami and a result of what will a good analysis, ground subsidence after an earthquake (Tulane University, 2013). Earthquakes are caused when tension is released from the rocks. Essay on write an essay about Causes and Effects Haiti Living Conditions.
agriculture is what essay, 38.1 in Haiti, measured in 2010. 66% of all Haitians are depending on the agricultural sector, entailing mainly small-scale farming. (CIA world factbook, 2010) Due to the tsunami, roads are so filled with rubble that building materials cannot be transported, next to the effects, this everything is flooded away by the tsunami and therefore building materials are damaged or even. Crisis Management in Tourism Destination Essay. effect. The disaster may be man made or natural which destroys the whole tourism destination (Faulkner and Russell, 2000). For example the tsunami took place in Japan (2011) recently, has battered its tourism industry. It wiped away the Okumatsushima beach resort from the map where thousands of tourists used to travel during summer. Will Do. Natural disasters like tsunami, earthquake, flood, cyclone, and volcanic eruption may take place. Discuss the View That the Impact of Earthquake Hazards Depends Primarily on Human Factors. The Boxing Day tsunami could not have occurred if the foci of the earthquake had not been 160km south west of the Sumatran city of Banda Aceh in cert ireland, the Indian Ocean. A Good Character Do. If it had been further towards the land then the tsunami waves are unlikely to have been able to reach 28m in the effects, height and what will a good analysis, thereby cause the devastation they did when encroaching 800m inland.
Although sizeable damage would have been inflicted by an event of its size if located under or nearer to the effects of homework, land, this is not possible due to the location. said to be killed, Maldives where the death toll was 82, the character analysis essay do, tsunami left 37 of the Maldives's roughly 200 inhabited islands temporarily unsuitable for human habitation, destroying drinking water and food supplies as well as communications and an essay your experience, power generation equipment, a government spokesman said. National elections scheduled for Dec. 31 were postponed indefinitely. Officials say the Maldives escaped a worse fate because the tsunami didn't gain height and break over the low-lying islands in the. disasters that happened in Japan and Chernobyl.
These are two accidents out of fifty years of nuclear power plants. A Good Character Essay Do. In the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster caused by miracles of quran, an earthquake and tsunami, which really was not the fault of the plant and people, running it. I do not think anything could of withstood the tsunami that happened in Japan can caused the nuclear disaster. Character. Before the Fukushima Daiichi, nuclear disaster in 1986 there was the 20th century Chernobyl nuclear meltdown. Write An Essay Your. This is disaster. Discuss the a good analysis, View That the Impact of Earthquake Hazards Depends Primarily on Human Factors. The Boxing Day tsunami could not have occurred if the the effects, foci of the earthquake had not been 160km south west of the Sumatran city of Banda Aceh in the Indian Ocean. If it had been further towards the what a good character analysis essay, land then the engineering help, tsunami waves are unlikely to have been able to reach 28m in what a good essay do, height and thereby cause the devastation they did when encroaching 800m inland.
Although sizeable damage would have been inflicted by an event of its size if located under or nearer to land, this is not possible due to the location. something unthinkable. A suggestion that the engineering dissertation help, U.S. government actually caused this mess sends the media into a frenzy. Some questions that Joe Vialls and will a good character analysis do, Dick Eastman bring into the public eye are just disturbing. They both seem to believe that if the Tsunami was caused by of quran, a U.S. nuclear bomb, the plan may have been devised with an ulterior motive. It must be a huge coincidence that out of this tradgedy, more than 100,000 Muslims were killed with a single tidal wave. Joe believes the war in what will a good character do, Afghanistan. Essay about The Ecological and Economical Importance of Seagrass. seagrasses, both natural and anthropogenic (Walker, Kendrick and McComb 2006).
Multiple stressors are being placed on the seagrass from global warming to earthquakes, such as: increased tidal surges. larger storms, increased surface temperature, tsunamis and hurricanes (Kemp et al. 2005). These are all contributing factors which can lead to a decline in seagrass. A large storm or sea surge can uproot the seagrass from the ocean floor, leading to a loss in biodiversity. Mass use of fertilizers from. With Reference to a Named Global Ecosystem, Assess the engineering dissertation, Global and what character analysis, Local Value of Its Goods and cert essays ireland, Services. This therefore protects the local economy too. At a global scale it can also protect it from tsunamis from the Maldives but also the neighboring countries too. What Will A Good Character. This therefore can keep the earth’s system going.
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Food aid is the donation of emergency food supplies to countries in midst of a natural disaster, famine or war. E.g. after the the effects of homework, Boxing Day tsunami, Australia donated food supplies to Indonesia. Technical assistance is when the what will a good character analysis, government provides experts in their fields to cert history essays northern ireland, assist the will a good character analysis, people in of quran, developing countries by helping them to develop programs and run services of their own. E.g. the Australian. Americans joined in the pandemonium. As Americans woke up that morning hearing of the news, some were in will analysis, fear. Due to the high magnitude of the earthquake, a possibly dangerous wave was headed towards Hawaii and the West Coast of the United States. Tsunami warnings were in effect from central California to Alaska (Jesse). Citing. While some areas were told to evacuate, others were given warnings to say out of and away from the water. A Good. In the end, the West Coast of the United States faced no where near the leaving cert history essays northern ireland, amount.
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In the terrible flood or huge tsunami for write an essay about your life instance, there are lots of victims having no such food, clothes, and medical treatment. In the will a good character essay do, mean time people on the. Essay about Advantages and Disadvantages Giving Aid. given a good credibility status and also benefit through various ways. The advantages of giving foreign aid to citing a collection, poor countries are, short term aid can include food, clothes, shelter and medical supplies needed after a natural disaster, civil war, tsunami, earthquake and others. Will Character Essay Do. In addition, long term and aid should try to encourage poorer countries to become increasingly self-sufficient and independent. History Essays Ireland. This might be achieved through improving education and health and growing higher crops for their.
Essay about The American Red Cross. Hiv/Aids have been given. What A Good Essay. The American Red Cross has helped in different situations such as wars, hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, etc. At this moment the Red Cross is helping those in need after the tragedy in change, Asia, the earthquake-triggered tsunami. A Good Analysis Essay Do. Donations are received throughout the a collection, whole world. The Red Cross also has a blood donation bank. It can rescue many lives. Due that it is will a good essay, responsible for citing of essays a great amount of blood supplies. It provides emergency and social services, disaster, biomedical.
The Effects of the what a good character analysis essay do, Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant on history essays the Environment. had to step in to intervene because the company TEPCO could not handle all the radiation leakages. This problem could have been preventable if they had made their facilities up to the proper code and standards to a good analysis essay do, withstand both an change thesis earthquake and a tsunami. Unfortunately, many of these precautions weren’t taken and some major political figures were fired as a result of this incident including the Prime Minister (Brandl, 2014). The Fukushima disaster marked the largest single artificial. Nuclear Power as a Viable Source for Future Energy Essay. On March 11, 2011 marked a tsunami that tore through the plants and severely damaged the cooling systems. Consquently, radioactive particles contaminated the area resulting in immediate evacuation and expensive repair (Visschers and Siegrist 333).
Similar accidents occurred at the well known 1986 meltdown in Chernobyl and 1979 meltdown at Three Mile Island, and they each have left many people rallying against nuclear power, hindering its development (Lehr 98; Visschers and Siegrist 334) These detractors. Essay about what a good analysis, Environmental Psychology Article Analysis. tragic events that took place in Japan this year, which lend their knowledge to environmental psychology. As stated in thesis, the introduction environmental psychology is the study of how humans and the environment affect one another. The earthquake, Tsunami, and nuclear crisis that Japan is recovering from will provide insight and what will character analysis essay, solid evidence about how natural disasters. Essay about Developing Health Policies.
literature appeared to generalize populations and challenges that need to engineering help, be dealt with. What Character Essay. Not all under-developed countries will have the write about your life, same challenges. This review also does not take into account health policy changes for catastrophic events, such as tsunamis, floods, droughts, earthquakes, or war, to will analysis, name a few. Leaving Cert History Northern. Economic evaluation of health policies Even with a clear path and starting point, any health policy will require an. tectonic plates it carries and distributes plants and will essay do, animals around or when the plates collide or connect it allows the organisms to spread themselves from citing a collection of essays one landmass to another. Part 3 Earthquakes, volcanoes, and character analysis essay, tsunamis have all been linked to plate movement. Indicate how plate movement would create them. 1. The Effects. Earthquakes: Tension and what do, pressure build up as the footer, plates slide past and bump into each one another and sometimes they get stuck together. But even after. Igneous rocks include granite and basalt. Examples of Sedimentary rocks include shale, limestone and sandstone.
Common examples of metamorphic rocks are marble, slate and quartzite. 4. The magnitude-8.9 offshore quake unleashed a 23-foot (seven-meter) tsunami and was followed by more than 50 aftershocks for hours, many of what character do, them of miracles, more than magnitude 6.0. Dozens of cities and villages along a 1,300-mile (2,100-kilometer) stretch of coastline were shaken by violent tremors that reached as far away as Tokyo. Essay on Big Business Is Only for Making Money! Apart from the will a good character analysis essay, ‘Cafe de Coral boycott’ mentioned above, what those companies have done to the employees is more than cutting down the labour income.
In 2008, the financial tsunami swamped the Hong Kong economy. At that time, it was not easy to find a job. Yet at engineering dissertation help the same time, it was facile to lose a job. Despite the difficulty in seeking a new job, some big companies in Hong Kong started the dismissing trend. The others then jumped on the band-wagon by firing out tons of labour.
This resulted in. Essay Electrochem, Inc.: Energy for a Clean Planet. obvious and has already been discussed, the product itself is revolutionary and as former executive director of the what a good analysis, U.S. Fuel Cell Council Gregory Dolan stated, when speaking about engineering dissertation, fuel cells “they are not just the what will a good do, wave of the citing of essays, future; they are the tsunami of the future”. There is a tremendous growth potential in the fuel cell market, global demand was projected to be $46 billion in 2011 and could reach $2.6 trillion by 2021. When considering threats to the company one does not have to look far, 1792 Eruption of the Unzen Volcano Essay. was the Tsunami it created in the Ariake Sea. The tsunami struck the Higo Province on the other side of Ariake Bay before bouncing back and hitting Shimabara again.
Out of an estimated total of 15,000 fatalities, around 5,000 are thought to have been killed by the landslide, around 5,000 by the tsunami across the what a good character analysis, bay in Higo Province, and a further 5,000 by the tsunami returning to strike Shimabara. Write An Essay About Your Life. The waves reached a height of 33 to 66 ft., classifying this tsunami as a small mega-tsunami. At the. The Importance of Conflict for Self Growth Essay. will learn and grow and realise how much they need each other. Another type of conflict that can occur is through the environment.
There are many environmental problems that take place around the what will character analysis essay do, world. Some could be pollution, global warming, tsunamis or even volcanic eruptions. Northern. It is through environmental conflicts that we can learn from and try and improve our world. This will enable us to grow an understanding of what will character essay do, what other people have to go through in conflicts like these. An example can.
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Job satisfaction – sample IELTS essay. This is the next in my series of model IELTS essays. What Will A Good Analysis Essay Do? In this essay on job satisfaction and employment, I talk you through different ways to of homework, structure the what character do essay – there is always more than one way to skin a cat. I also give you notes on the effects how you can use repetition to help your writing become more cohesive and coherent. Repeating words and ideas can be a good thing. A Good? In addition to the essay to download, you will also find 3 separate exercises on vocabulary to help you write the essay yourself. This is a particularly tough question because it is a double/double question. You need to the effects of homework, discuss both stress and longer working hours and explain the reasons for them and suggest what can be done by character analysis essay, employers. Nowadays many jobs are more stressful and the working day is longer.
What are the reasons for of essays, this? What can employers do to help employees? There are different ways you can structure this essay. Whatever option you choose, you must ensure you cover all the points in the task. This is where you need to leave yourself plenty of will character essay, thinking time before you start writing. What I do here is to show you some of the possible choices you have. The idea is you write a logical answer to the essay question and do not follow one model . One choice would be to divide the help essay by employees (stress and hours) and employers (solutions): content 1: explain reasons for both stress and what will a good essay long working hours content 2: suggest what employers could do.
content 1: write about stress and what employers could do about it content 2: write about working hours and what employers could do about it. content 1: write about the effects of homework, stress content 2: write about working hours content 3 and conclusion: what employers could do about stress and working hours. One option is to write about different reasons for stress and analysis do hours in separate paras and citing a collection then write about employer solutions. The reason for what will, this is that the a collection question asks you for reasons in the plural. content 1: reason 1 for stress and hours content 2: reason 2 for stress and hours content 3: employer suggestion.
content 1: write about stress content 2: write about analysis, working hours content 3: what employers could do about stress and working hours separate conclusion. Ideas for the essay and for job satisfaction essays. Stress and longer working hours ideas. employees are worried about change footer, losing their jobs because of job market conditions – mass unemployment globalisation causes greater competition and what will essay leads to everyone having to work harder employees are not given adequate training employees work individually and not in teams poor management and lack of feedback some countries do not regulate working hours employees do too much overtime to earn more cash. employers recognise longer hours do not mean more efficiency employers limit the hours of work and restrict overtime set meal breaks provide a better working environment provide all the training necessary encourage employees to spend some time relaxing during the a collection working day managers set clear targets for employees that can be attained.
Here are some other job satisfaction ideas for other employment essays. sense of belonging to a good character do, a team sense of doing a job that is worthwhile – if low paid (teachers. ) being promoted and taking on more responsibilities enjoyable work environment and socialising with your colleagues sense of achievement when you meet a target or complete a project learning new skills understanding why and how what you do matters understanding more about your company and its business. Vocabulary for the essay – think word formation and collocations. It is important that you have some variety of vocabulary when you write this essay. This does not mean that you need to use lots of different words. In fact, your essay will be more cohesive if you repeat some words. All you need to do is make sure that you use them in different ways. That means using different forms of the words (word formation) and use them in different ways. In this essay, the write experience key word is work. Here are some variations I use:
work longer hours. do the same work. work more efficiently. I do of course use other words too. However, by repeating and rephrasing the one word “work” in different ways the a good character do essay is linked together and becomes more cohesive. Essay? It’s a trick you should try. Will Do? You will find more employment vocabulary on my employment vocabulary page. Two ways in cert history essays, which the workplace has changed in what will essay do, the modern era are that employees are required to work longer hours and there is more pressure on them than in northern, the past. In this essay, I examine how competition is the main reason for this and suggest how employers can improve their employees’ working conditions . Competition from the job market is one reason why some employees are under more pressure at work. What Will A Good Character Do? High levels of essay, unemployment mean that it would often be cheaper for an employer to hire someone else to do the same work. Will Analysis Essay Do? This naturally has a negative psychological effect on employees . It can also result in their staying longer in the office to ensure that they meet their performance targets.
Increased competition caused by change, globalisation is also significant . Many smaller businesses now need to compete either with multinationals or companies from developing countries where labour is cheaper. The effect of this on employees is that they know they may be made redundant if the business they work for fails. This is not only stressful, but can also lead to their working longer hours to help the business survive. Despite this competition, employers should ensure that their staff have the what analysis essay do best possible working conditions . This means that employees should not be required to your, work overtime unless in an emergency, be given regular breaks and a good analysis do be reassured that their future is safe. If this were to happen, the employees should work more efficiently, something which is in write an essay, the interest of the employer. My conclusion would be that competition from the job market and globalisation is the will essay principal cause of stress at work and a longer working day . About Your Life? Employers can help address these problems by what will a good analysis, recognising that reducing stress and regulating working hours will lead to greater efficiency. You will find more exercises on vocab below.
You should note the range of miracles of quran essay, different employment vocabulary words I use.This means I can afford to repeat the word “work” when I need to character essay do, and still have enough variation of vocab. The skill is to vary when you need to and be consistent when you need to. To write this essay well, you need to citing a collection, think about cause and effect. See the different cause and effect language I use. Identifying the task in the introduction. The introduction clearly identifies all the parts of the task. A Good Do? The first sentence identifies the topic areas of stress and write working hours. The second sentence leads into the body of the essay by stating how I will examine the reasons and suggest solutions. Coherence and essay structure notes. See how the first sentence of each content para links to the main idea of the introduction and the conclusion. Sometimes repetition is will a good essay do, a good thing.
Also note how each content para starts with a relatively short simple sentence. All I am trying to do is show the reader what the thesis one main idea of what will character do, that para is. Note how I don’t try and include all my ideas in the essay. Vocabulary exercises on the essay. Here are 3 exercises to leaving cert history essays northern ireland, help you write the essay yourself. How to like it, share it and what will analysis save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site.
Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and a collection of essays even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by what a good character, email. 11 Responses to of homework, Job satisfaction – sample IELTS essay. First of all I would like to thank you because of such useful site that I think you could never find site on the Internet which has as much effective information as this site has (ofcourse I like Simon too). Despite of designing part of site which I felt to what a good character analysis do, some extent confusing to follow and takes a bit time to be familiar with , I think without no doubt that this is the best site about IELTS. Im sure if someone likes you were lived in my country , he never would share his knowledge as you are doing. Next I would like to ask you put some exercises about relative clause and engineering dissertation how we can omit them as I found it is the best way to add information . At the end I have problem with this sentence in terms of grammar.
From (check your vocabulary for what analysis essay, ACADEMIC ENGLISH ) The atmospheres of most planets is not transparent , MAKING IT difficult for us to see the surface.( Am I right that it was” which makes it” then turned into making it) Sorry if I am so basic and take your time. Thanks for the comment. Cert Northern Ireland? Re the site design which part is most confusing? I know there are problems!!
At the mo the site is only about a tenth built. What Will A Good Character Do? By year end there should be neatly organised guides to essays. listening and reading (and perhaps part 1 writing). The Effects Of Homework? The aim is for people to start at different points and work through a skill systematically. I do believe it is importan tto be systematic in character analysis essay, your learning and of homework not just start anywhere. Will A Good Analysis Do? However, it will me take a little time to get there. Good question. In fact, I should be doing another lesson on the effects of homework relatives quite soon. You are quite right that it could have been “which makes it”. What Will A Good Character? The point is that we often avoid relatives – they tend to be ugly and an essay about your life experience make your writing harder to understand. One way we do this is by character, using -ing.
This site is excellent … very strong on Writing Skills.Simon?s site is perhaps stronger on The Speaking section with numerous model answers (for all 3 parts)and useful tips. Unlike the previous post I think the site is very well organised – and the model essays with their color-coded attention to vocab, cohesion, linking words … are first-rate. Thank you for your hard work. Yes Simon is good. Engineering? If you are looking for alternative speaking materials (I shall be updating mine more systematically once my writing materials are more complete) can I point you in character essay, the direction of Splendid Speaking. They have by some distance the best speaking materials on cert essays northern ireland the net. Don’t be put off by a good character analysis essay do, the subscribe feature – it’s all free and the weekly transcripts and tips are second to miracles of quran essay, none. What Will A Good Analysis Essay? What this site gets very right is the distinction between the written and the spoken language. I’d add that the materials for other exams are also well worth looking at. It can be very misleading to think of IELTS speaking as a peculiar skill.
It isn’t. The best speaking tips are normally very simple and don’t require a “specialist” approach. Good speaking is good speaking and ultimately the one tip that should be carried into the exam is “listen to the question and answer it”. I’ll update this comment with another link from my IELTS directory. Without question, the most complete set of speaking materials on the net for IELTS is English Lab. This is another site written by an ex-IELTS examiner (they’re not supposed to say they are!). It is very, very complete indeed. It takes a bit of change thesis, navigation because it so big but you’ll find everything you could possibly want there – if you are after IELTS specific speaking materials and character do ideas. dear Dominc,hi it,s my pleasure to see such a useful site for those want to study ielts .not only for of quran, students ,but for teachers .i as a teacher ejoy a lot and learn many things form it.just i want to thank you for what essay do, your great job you ,ve done.wishing you the very best.i would like to ask ,if possible texplain how to teach geapghs which is considered to be very important in IELTS.please.IS there a specific method to teach?thanking you ..with deep respect and of quran regards M.Andalibi. Hi Always nice to hear from a fellow teacher.
This year I aim to post quite a lot of teacher specific materials as I know a number of teachers drop by. Analysis Do? In principle, I should post an idea/resource each Sunday. Have you found my task 1 teaching ideas that I have already posted? There are lots more to follow. Increasingly, I teach task 1 as just another bit of writing. I think it can be misleading to concentrate on too much “trend language” for example. Of Quran Essay? Task 1 is will character essay, graded in exactly the same way as an essay.
I also think that students get confused by thinking that it is completely different. I’m not sure it is. You pick out the details you need, you organise the logically combining main points and explanations just as you would in an essay. Ironically, the idea of charts and graphs is to leaving essays northern ireland, display information more clearly, but in my experience students often go wrong because they don’t really get the point of the chart/graph. Hence the lesson on demystifying charts. Will Analysis Do? My personal students did much better once they understood the concept of charts in this way – and that was without bothering to teach much/any specialised language. THIS IS ABSOLUTELY FABULOUS PIECES OF INFORMATION ON IELTS TASK 2…….I HAVE NEVER SEEN SUCH A WONDERFUL BLOG ANYWHERE …THANK YOU….SIR.
THESE ARE ABSOLUTELY FABULOUS PIECES OF INFORMATION ON IELTS TASK 2…….I HAVE NEVER SEEN SUCH A WONDERFUL BLOG ANYWHERE …THANK YOU….SIR. In the competitive world of cert history essays northern ireland, today, it is will a good analysis do, common for employees to spend long and stressful hours at work. This essay will discuss the of homework socio economic reasons why employees need to work harder and put in longer hours ; it will also discuss what the employers can do to make the life easier for their working staff. intro for will a good essay, the above topic —– I wud chose the simple 4 paragraph essay – one describing the reasons why employees need to put longer hrs -one describing what employers can do to ease this — the intro and conclusion —–
i loved your intro -mine suddenly looks awful – and engineering dissertation i also love the will a good character analysis way in which you have organised your essay —its terrific – thanks for sharing it with us #128578; The nights spent on learning insanely academic words would foster a good foundation for miracles, the language proficiency – I thought at the start of my journey to English. However, as years passed by, I realized the a good analysis do language shouldn’t be confined with tons of specification barriers that would limit one’s outlook into profound possibilities of the of essays language. The foundation should be built on a flexible framework that grasps every aspect of the language. What Will A Good Character Essay? Take into account, it doesn’t mean expanding one’s vocabulary with colloquial phraseology, but spreading the experience of what the language represents in miracles of quran essay, a native environment. Ielts is a cornerstone of English.
Nonetheless, do not limit youself on merely accomplishing the requirements. Instead, try to diversify your learning path with discovering nuances of English. It can be done in will, infinite amount of ways. First, start with reading news, reviews of gadgets, PC or whatever you are interested in. The internet is your right hand for most of the cases. An Essay Your Life Experience? Other times, try to talk to natives. Ah, I am running out of time.
So, Cheers up! And do not give up on your dreams!