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Race and Discrimination in Othello by William Shakespeare | Owlcation

Shakespeare othello racism essay

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annie john resume A significant voice in contemporary literature, Jamaica Kincaid (born 1949) is widely praised for othello, her works of short fiction, novels, and essays in which she explores the tenuous relationship between mother and with daughter as well as themes of anti-colonialism. A native of the shakespeare othello racism island of Antigua, Kincaid is considered one of the most important women Caribbean writers. Over a career that has spanned more than three decades, Kincaid has earned a reputable place in good will essay, the literary world for her highly personal, stylistic, and shakespeare othello racism honest writings. Jamaica Kincaid was born Elaine Potter Richardson on May 25, 1949, in change, the capital city of St. John's on Antigua, a small island in the West Indies that was colonized by the British in 1632 and achieved full independence in 1981. Her mother, Annie Richardson, was an emigre from Dominica. Shakespeare Othello! Her stepfather, David Drew, was a carpenter and cabinetmaker. Shakespeare Othello! Kincaid's maternal grandmother, a Carib Indian, also played an important role in her early life.

Kincaid's biological father, Roderick Potter, was never involved in othello racism, her upbringing. Her family was poor: they had no electricity, running water, or plumbing in their home. Kincaid was an only child until she was nine, at which time the first of her three brothers was born. Until their birth, Kincaid had enjoyed the sole attention of her mother, who taught her to read when she was three and had given her a copy of the Oxford English Dictionary when she turned seven. However, with the persuasive arrival of her brothers, Kincaid's relationship with her mother changed dramatically. Othello Racism! She was no longer a dependent young child and her importance in her mother's eyes was severely diminished because she was female. Although Kincaid was intellectually gifted, she was not given encouragement in the British public school she attended on the island. Her teachers frequently found her attitude rude and persuasive considered her a troublemaker. Nevertheless, she was an othello avid reader and research spent much time at othello racism essay the city's library, getting to know and admire the young librarian who worked there. Kincaid's love for books was so fierce that she stole some from the persuasive essay library and hid them under her family's porch. The bookish and small child was not well liked by othello racism essay, her peers, who often picked fights with her and beat her up.

Discussing this period in her life, Kincaid recalled in a Kenyon Review interview with Moira Ferguson in 1994, I would come home with my clothes in tatters and my face scratched up, and my mother would take me back to the person who had beaten me up and say 'fight, fight' and I couldn't fight. I would just cry and radiography cry#8230; . Shakespeare Othello Racism Essay! Eventually, after years of abuse, when she was 11, Kincaid finally did fight back and win. After that, she was no longer tormented and she actually took on a leadership role. Persuasive Essay! As a girl there were few options available for Kincaid. She would have liked to have attended university in Antigua and racism remained there after becoming a teacher or a librarian, but she was not given that opportunity. Despite the shortcomings of shakespeare her early education, she did acquire a strong background in English literature, studying the works of shakespeare racism Shakespeare, Wordsworth, Keats, and the King James version of the antithesis tera Bible.

Kincaid especially loved the racism works of antithesis tera Charlotte Bronte, reading Jane Eyre numerous times. In 1966, shortly after turning 17, Kincaid was sent to the United States to work as an au pair for an affluent family in Scarsdale, New York. Shakespeare Othello! She was expected to send money home to her family, but she would not. She received letters from home, but she did not open them. It was in this state of self-exile that Kincaid would shape her new life away from the unhappiness she had felt in Antigua.

Shortly after leaving her job in Scarsdale, Kincaid found work for an Upper East Side family in New York City. After this move, she left no forwarding address and change graduate was cut off from her family until her return to Antigua 20 years later. While working in New York, Kincaid continued her education at othello a community college, earned a high school equivalency diploma, and began taking photography courses at the New School for persuasive english essay, Social Research. Shakespeare Othello Racism! She later studied photography at Franconia College in New Hampshire on a scholarship, though she never earned a college diploma. When asked in a 1996 interview with Dwight Garner in Salon if she had any aspirations to papers become a writer when she came to the United States, she stated flatly, None. Absolutely none. [When] I first arrived I was incredibly depressed and lonely. Shakespeare Racism! I didn't know there was such a world as the literary world.

I didn't know anything, except maybe how to put one foot in front of the othello racism other. Shakespeare Othello Racism Essay! Although Kincaid was not fully aware of persuasive essay her literary ambitions during her childhood and shakespeare othello essay early years in New York, she had gained much from her voracious reading, all of which was of an English literary tradition. She had never been exposed to West Indian literature. When speaking to Ferguson, she acknowledged that as a child she would imagine stories and conversations in will hunting, her head, but she never wrote them down. It was her experiences in shakespeare othello racism essay, photography that finally made her aware of writing. After watching the radiography papers French film La Jete and reading Alain Robbe-Grillet, Kincaid felt her burst of inspiration. She told Ferguson, I began to write poems. Othello Racism! I began to write of my photographs#8212;what I would take and [how] I would set them up. I would look at what I had written down, and good will movie essay that is how I would take the photograph.

I would write down what I thought the picture should feel like. And I would try to take a picture of what I had written down. After three years as an au pair, Kincaid left to become a secretary, model, and backup singer in a New York club. In 1970, with bleached blond hair, Kincaid enjoyed a freewheeling city lifestyle, sharing with Garner that she once attended a Halloween party dressed as Josephine Baker with only some bananas wrapped around her waist. Othello Racism Essay! She began to contribute pieces to hunting movie Ingenue, a teen magazine. Her first published work, When I Was Seventeen, was an interview with Gloria Steinem about the shakespeare othello racism notable feminist's own teenage years. In 1973, Elaine Potter Richardson changed her name to Jamaica Kincaid mainly to keep her anonymity since she feared her family would disapprove of research papers her writing and mock her efforts. After her contributions to Ingenue and the Village Voice, Kincaid began to shakespeare othello racism make contacts with members of New York's literary society. One friend, Michael O'Donoghue, who was a founding writer for Saturday Night Live, introduced Kincaid to George Trow, who wrote the with academic essays Talk of the Town column for New Yorker magazine.

A strong friendship developed between the two and Kincaid began to shakespeare othello accompany Trow when he researched bits for his column, adding her observations. William Shawn, editor of the New Yorker, ultimately asked Kincaid to write her own Talk of the Town piece. She submitted notes of persuasive english essay her observations of the West Indian Day parade, and Shawn published the notes as a finished column. Beginning in 1976, Kincaid contributed regularly to the magazine as a staff writer under Shawn's mentorship. In 1978, she published her first work of fiction, the racism essay short story Girl, in the New Yorker. Kincaid acknowledged that Shawn helped her develop her voice and encouraged her to shakespeare racism continue writing stories. Along with the significant development as a writer Kincaid received while working at othello racism the New Yorker, she also met Allen Shawn, a classical composer and son of Ted Shawn. They were married in good hunting movie essay, 1979.

In Girl and nine other sketches, often denoted prose poems by critics, that appeared in the 1983 collection At the Bottom of the River, Kincaid plumbed her early life in Antigua, developing a series of fictional narratives centering on a young Caribbean girl. The stories were marked by a lyrically poetic, incantatory, rhythmic voice. Perhaps the most-discussed piece in the collection is Girl, which is one sentence uttered by a mother to her child, listing in repetitive scrutiny a series of commands. Her breakthrough collection earned Kincaid the Morton Dauwen Zabel Award from the American Academy and othello racism essay Institute of Arts and Letters. Kincaid followed the publication of persuasive At the Bottom of the River with the slim novel Annie John in 1985. In this work, Kincaid writes a coming-of-age tale that focuses on the life of a young Caribbean girl. The theme of the othello racism essay mother-daughter relationship in which a mother devastatingly severs her bond with her daughter is at graduate its core. This work was well received and critics praised its rhythmic quality, evocative images, and universal themes. Many critics have noted that her most significant theme, that of the othello mother-daughter bond, represents the larger issue of the powerful and the powerless, particularly as this relationship operates in a colonial culture. The personal nature of so much of Kincaid's fiction is will hunting essay one of its salient features, and she admits that her difficult relationship with her own mother inspired her writing, though she maintains it was an act of salvation to write her thoughts down. Writing is really such an expression of personal growth, she admitted to Ferguson.

I don't know how else to live. For me it is a matter of saving my life. I don't know what I would do if I didn't write. It is a matter of living in shakespeare othello, the deepest way. Change Essay! Noting the autobiographical element to her writing, she asserted that My writing has been very autobiographical. The events are true to me. They may not be true to essay other people.

I think it is fair for my mother to say, 'This is radiography research not me.' It is only the mother in shakespeare, the books I've written. It is only the mother as the person I used to be perceived her#8230; . For me it was really an act of saving my life, so it had to be autobiographical. Radiography Research Papers! With the publication of othello essay her nonfiction work A Small Place in 1988 and her third fictional work, Lucy, in papers, 1991, Kincaid was no longer the darling of the literary world. Reviewers were divided over the angry tone expressed in both works. In A Small Place, described as an anti-travel narrative, Kincaid returns to Antigua after having been gone for 20 years. She ultimately skewers the white tourist who visits Antigua with no thought to the poverty and the long-endured oppression of the colonized natives, while also pointing out the corruption of the post-independent Antiguan government. Bob Gottlieb, editor of the New Yorker at the time, refused to publish any of the work in the magazine due to shakespeare othello its angry tone. In her native Antigua, the government issued an informal ban on Kincaid, restricting her visits to good the island from 1985 to 1992. Seemingly unaccepting of her resentment and frustrations, V.R.

Peterson of People compared Kincaid to shakespeare othello essay West Indian writer V.S. Naipaul, maintaining that where Naipaul is humane and appreciative of the dark corners of the radiography research human condition, Kincaid seems only vituperative and othello essay intemperate. Kincaid drew similar criticism for the novel Lucy. Annie John ends with the essay protagonist leaving Antigua at the age of shakespeare othello racism essay 17, and papers Lucy begins with the eponymous protagonist leaving the Caribbean at age 19 to come to the United States to work as an au pair for shakespeare racism, a wealthy New York City family. Commentators note a more bitter tone to this novel in which Lucy will not bend to the powers that hold sway. However, most still commend Kincaid's storytelling abilities. Reviewing the novel, the antithesis tera Newsweek book critic summarized Vinegary Lucy doesn't bother to be likable, but her shrewdness and her gumption make her good company all the same. Shakespeare! Kincaid returned to her familiar theme of the mother-daughter relationship and the cruel outcomes of help with colonization with her dark portrayal of seventy-year-old Xuela Claudette Richardson, the narrator of her novel The Autobiography of My Mother published in 1996.

The novel, set on the island of Dominica, presents the life of the narrator and the mother whom she never knew who had died in childbirth. Xuela's life is mired in shakespeare, loss, and, as Andrea Stuart noted in the New Statesman, [ Autobiography of My Mother ] is othello racism essay simultaneously one of the most beautifully written books I have read, and one of the most alienating. Othello Racism! In 1997 this complex novel was a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award for fiction and the PEN Faulkner Award. In 1997 Kincaid published My Brother, a memoir of her youngest brother Devon Drew, who died of AIDS in 1996 at the age of 33. This highly personal work addresses not only the relationship Kincaid had with her brother#8212;the two were alike in personality though they had spent little time together#8212;as well as the continued themes of her resentful relationship with her mother and the devastating outcomes of a post-colonial culture. Reviewing the work in Time John Skow laments that while there is deep, honest feeling here #8230; it seems long past time for othello essay, this gifted writer to tell us something new. In response to such criticism, Kincaid related to Garner, I am not troubled #8230; to be seen to be of othello racism essay one whole cloth#8212;that all that I write is a further development of something. Perhaps it is musical in that way.

My work is a chord that develops in antithesis tera, many different ways. I couldn't help but write these books. Central to this work is Kincaid's discovery after Drew has died that he was homosexual and the oppressive secret he had kept throughout his life. Shakespeare Racism Essay! Kincaid's ability to address the personal themes within a memoir that, according to Brad Goldfarb in will movie, Interview, is an almost ruthless desire to get at the truth and shakespeare othello racism still relate them to change essay such universal themes as familial bonds and the overarching question of post-colonial issues, helped her earn a nomination for a National Book Award. As a child, Kincaid had been surrounded by plants on Antigua, and shakespeare othello racism essay her interest in career, gardening developed steadily throughout her adult life. In 1985, when her husband accepted a teaching position in Bennington, Vermont, the couple moved to this idyllic community with their two young children, Annie and Harold. Leaving the confines of the city, Kincaid had ample space to garden, and she published My Garden (Book ) in 1999. This collection of essays marks a departure from the embittered tone of her previous works and was heralded as entertaining yet intelligent due to Kincaid's artful connection between gardening and philosophical and poetic reflections. While most reviewers concede that all of Kincaid's works, despite at times her harsh tone, are complex and stylistically unique, with My Garden (Book ), Kincaid seemed to have expressed similarly profound observations in a more gentle, even humorous tone. Mr. Shakespeare Racism Essay! Potter, Kincaid's tenth book, is a return to a West Indian setting and characters from her family background.

The narrator, Elaine Cynthia Potter Richardson, ruminates over the empty life of Roderick Potter, her father who has had no part in her life. Essay! Acknowledging the characters' obvious connections to shakespeare othello racism essay Kincaid's own life, Susan Walker asserts in the Toronto Star that it's unlikely any reader will mistake these characters for actual people. They are too encased in literary language, too distilled, almost mythic in shakespeare, the way they come to othello racism essay represent the way many people's lives are shaped by history. While many of Kincaid's works are short in length, they have never failed to persuasive essay elicit respect, if at times reluctantly. Kincaid herself is a forthright person who speaks candidly. After she left the othello racism essay New Yorker in 1995, she spoke quite openly about her disgust at academic essays the vulgarity that the magazine produced under the editorship of othello essay Tina Brown. Papers! Her frankness, however, is always tinged with humor as she told Garner, [Brown's] actually got some nice qualities. But she can't help but be attracted to the coarse and racism essay vulgar. I wish there was some vaccine#8212;I would sneak it up on her. Kincaid has been awarded honorary degrees from Williams College (1991), Long Island College (1991), Amherst College (1995), Bard College (1997), and persuasive essay Middlebury College (1998).

She continues to write from her home in Bennington, teaching creative writing at Bennington College and Harvard University. Authors and Artists for Young Adults, Volume 13, Gale, 1994. Concise Dictionary of American Literary Biography Supplement: Modern Writers, 1900-1998, Gale, 1998. Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2001. Contemporary Black Biography, Volume 4, Gale, 1993. Contemporary Literary Criticism, Gale, 2002. Shakespeare Othello! Contemporary Novelists, 7th ed., St. Shakespeare Essay! James Press, 2001.

Feminist Writers, St. James Press, 1996. Notable Black American Women, Book 1, Gale, 1992. St. James Guide to Young Adult Writers, 2nd ed., St. James Press, 1999. Advocate, December 9, 1997. Christian Science Monitor, January 17, 1996. Essence, March 1996. Interview, October 1997.

Kenyon Review, Winter 1994. Othello Essay! Kirkus Reviews, March 1, 2002. Library Journal, October 1, 1999. Career Change Graduate Essay! Literary Cavalcade, February 2001. Maclean's, June 3, 2002. Mother Jones, September/October 1997. Nation, June 15, 1985; February 18, 1991; February 5, 1996; November 3, 1997. New Statesman, October 11, 1996. New York Times Book Review, December 5, 1999.

Newsweek, October 1, 1990. Shakespeare Othello Racism Essay! People, September 26, 1988; December 15, 1997. Salon, January 13, 1996; December 20, 1999. Time, February 5, 1996; November 10, 1997. Times, July 20, 2002. Toronto Star, May 27, 2002. Women's Review of Books, March 2000; September 2002. Jamaica Kincaid, BBC World Service, (February 11, 2003). Jamaica Kincaid, Voices from the Gaps: Women Writers of Color, (February 11, 2003).

Words near Jamaica Kincaid in the dictionary. Create and save customized word lists. Academic! Sign up today and start improving your vocabulary! Please set a username for yourself. Shakespeare Othello Racism Essay! People will see it as Author Name with your public word lists.

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How Betsy DeVos Used God and Amway to Take Over Michigan Politics. With her nomination as education secretary, a powerful political clan will bring its overtly Christian agenda to Washington. January 15, 2017. On election night 2006, Dick DeVos, the bronzed, starched 51-year-old scion of Michigan’s wealthiest family, paced to a lectern in the dim ballroom of the Sheraton Hotel in Lansing to deliver the speech that every candidate dreads. The Michigan gubernatorial race that year had been a dogfight of personal attacks between DeVos, the shakespeare othello racism essay, Republican nominee, and radiography research papers Democratic Governor Jennifer Granholm. Gloomy, bleached-out b-roll of shuttered factories in anti-Granholm ads made the governor’s sunny economic promise that “You’re gonna be blown away” sound less like an aspiration than a threat. Anti-DeVos ads cut closer to the bone, with one depicting a cartoon DeVos cheering a freighter hauling Michigan jobs to China. It was an unsubtle reference to DeVos’ time as president of Amway, the shakespeare othello racism essay, direct-sales behemoth his family co-founded and co-owns, when he eliminated jobs in Michigan while expanding dramatically in Asia.

DeVos ended up personally spending $35 million on the race—the most expensive campaign in shakespeare racism essay Michigan history—and when the votes came in, lost by a crushing 14 points. Story Continued Below. At the Lansing Sheraton, the shakespeare othello essay, mood was grim. “If we aren’t going to be able to serve in this way, I look forward to the ways we can,” DeVos told his glum supporters. Behind him on the ballroom risers stood his family; closest to him was his wife, Betsy, choking back tears. Though dressed in a blue skirt-suit, the radiography research papers, uniform of a first ladyship that was not to be, Betsy DeVos was never a political accessory. Anyone who understood Michigan politics knew she had long been the more political animal of the pair. It was Betsy, not Dick, who had chaired the Michigan Republican Party; Betsy, who had served as a member of the Republican National Committee; Betsy, whose name was once floated to succeed Haley Barbour as head of the RNC; Betsy, who had directed a statewide ballot campaign to legalize public funding of religious schools; Betsy, who, as a college freshman, traveled to Ohio and Indiana to volunteer for Gerald Ford’s presidential campaign. She was a skilled and seasoned operator, but as her husband conceded in an overwhelming defeat, she was utterly helpless. At the time, it seemed like a dead end for a neophyte political candidate. Shakespeare Essay! In reality, it was the opening of a new avenue the radiography papers, DeVoses followed to shakespeare othello essay far greater political influence, reshaping Michigan politics and the national Republican scene. “I think that loss really solidified the shakespeare essay, idea in the DeVoses’ minds that the real way to racism essay get what you want is to be behind the scenes,” says Susan Demas, publisher of Inside Michigan Politics.

In the decade since that loss, the DeVos family, with Dick and Betsy at the helm, has emerged as a political force without comparison in will Michigan. Their politics are profoundly Christian and conservative—“God, America, Free Enterprise,” to borrow the subtitle of family patriarch Richard DeVos’ 1975 book, Believe! —and their vast resources (the family’s cumulative net worth is estimated at shakespeare, well over $5 billion) assure that they can steamroll their way to victory on issues ranging from help essays education reform to workers’ rights. “At the federal level, when GOP candidates are looking for big donors to back them, they have options,” says Craig Mauger, executive director of the Michigan Campaign Finance Network. “If you don’t get Sheldon Adelson, you can go to the Koch brothers, and so on. In Michigan, the DeVos family is a class of donor all by shakespeare othello racism themselves.” Top: Gubernatorial candidate Dick DeVos shakes hands while campaigning with wife Betsy and Arizona Senator John McCain. Antithesis Tera! Bottom left: Betsy DeVos and President George H.W. Bush at shakespeare, a 2000 campaign fundraiser for George W. Bush. Antithesis Tera! Bottom right: In 2004, Betsy DeVos campaigns with Representatives Mike Rogers and Candice Miller. | Regina H. Boone/TNS/; AP Photos. Thanks to the DeVoses, Michigan’s charter schools enjoy a virtually unregulated existence. Thanks to shakespeare essay them, too, the help with academic essays, center of the American automotive industry and shakespeare racism birthplace of the papers, modern labor movement is now a right-to-work state.

They’ve funded campaigns to elect state legislators, established advocacy organizations to lobby them, buttressed their allies and primaried those they disagree with, spending at least $100 million on political campaigns and causes over the past 20 years. “The DeVos family has been far more successful not having the governor’s seat than if they had won it,” says Richard Czuba, the essay, owner of the Glengariff Group, a bipartisan polling firm in Michigan. “They have, to some degree, created a shadow state party. Essay! And it’s been pretty darn effective.” Buoyed by the success in Michigan, the DeVoses have exported a scaled-down version of that template into other states, funding an archipelago of local political action committees and advocacy organizations to ease the proliferation of charter schools in Indiana, New Jersey, Ohio, Iowa, Virginia and Louisiana, among others. At the othello, same time, DeVos-backed PACs have transformed the nature of papers, American political campaigns. By showing the success of independent PACs that answered to a few deep-pocketed donors rather than a broad number of shakespeare essay, stakeholders associated with a union or chamber of help academic essays, commerce, for instance, the DeVoses precipitated the monsoon of independent expenditures that has rained down upon politicians for the past decade. In the process, they’ve reshaped political campaigns as well as the policies that result from them. Ten years after she watched her husband give a concession speech, Betsy DeVos was unveiled as President-elect Donald Trump’s pick for secretary of shakespeare othello, education. Across the country, public-school advocates and career teachers’ unions expressed almost unanimous horror: One of the shakespeare essay, most effective advocates for breaking down the rules and protections for public schools and teachers would soon be the nation’s most powerful education policymaker.

But people who’ve been watching the DeVoses closely knew they were seeing something else as well: One of the nation’s most ambitious, disruptive and downright unusual political families finally had a seat in Washington. To understand the DeVos family , it helps to understand West Michigan. Shakespeare! A sweeping landscape of flat, rolling farmland freckled with small towns, it sits on the opposite side of the state—in more than one way—from the big, diverse, reliably Democratic Detroit metropolitan area. Othello! Broadly speaking, it’s a region where people are deeply religious, politically conservative, entrepreneurial and unfailingly polite—think Utah, if it were settled not by Mormons but by Dutch Calvinists. “There’s an old expression here,” chuckles Gleaves Whitney, director of the Hauenstein Center for Presidential Studies at Grand Valley State University in Grand Rapids. “‘If you ain’t Dutch, you ain’t much.’” The DeVos family is Dutch, thoroughly so. All four of Richard DeVos’ grandparents emigrated from the Netherlands, and today, the family continues to observe the tenets of the Christian Reformed Church, a Calvinist denomination.

Calvinism believes in predestination—that God has decided whether our souls are saved before we are born—and emphasizes an “inner worldly asceticism” in persuasive its practitioners. Historically, in avoiding ostentatious displays of wealth, Calvinist Protestants have instead turned their economic gains into savings and investments. One of the bedrock texts of sociology, Max Weber’s 1905 Protestant Work Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , is shakespeare expressly about the radiography research papers, links between Calvinism and economic success. (“In the place of the humble sinners to whom Luther promises grace if they trust themselves to shakespeare othello God in penitent faith,” Weber wrote, “are bred those self-confident saints whom we can rediscover in the hard Puritan merchants of the persuasive english essay, heroic age of othello, capitalism.”) In this, Dick and Betsy DeVos’ familial roots serve as an object example. Dick is the essay, eldest son of Richard DeVos, who co-founded Amway in 1959, and grew it from a meager soap factory into a multinational colossus with $9.5 billion in annual sales, enlisting his children to manage and shakespeare essay expand the company. Betsy hails from a dynasty of her own.

In 1965, her father, Edgar Prince, founded a small manufacturing company that came to be worth more than $1 billion on the strength of career change graduate essay, Prince’s automotive innovations, which include the pull-down sun visor with a built-in light-up vanity mirror. When Betsy Prince and Dick DeVos married in 1979, it brought together two powerful Dutch families with perfectly compatible values. “There’s a close-knit atmosphere of the aristocracy of othello racism, West Michigan,” Demas says. “It almost brings to mind the old monarchies of Europe where they would intermarry.” There’s a close-knit atmosphere of the aristocracy of radiography, West Michigan,” Demas says. Shakespeare Othello! “It almost brings to mind the radiography, old monarchies of Europe where they would intermarry.” Amway, the machine that built the DeVos fortune, is among the best-known multilevel-marketing companies in the world, relying on independent salespeople to start their own businesses selling Amway-produced goods and to recruit other independent salespeople to work underneath them. Over the past half-century, the shakespeare racism essay, company has attracted a healthy dose of criticism. In 1969, the hunting essay, Federal Trade Commission alleged that Amway was a pyramid scheme, launching a six-year investigation that failed to prove the charges.

In 1982, the government of Canada filed criminal charges against the company, alleging that Amway had defrauded the country out of shakespeare racism, $28 million in customs duties and forged fake receipts to cover its tracks; in November 1983, Amway pled guilty to fraud and Canadian prosecutors dropped the criminal charges against Richard DeVos and other company executives. Amway’s direct-sales model—which it has exported to antithesis tera more than 100 countries—has become a ubiquitous part of the modern economy. (Among those who've experimented with the racism, approach is the president-elect, whose Trump Network in 2009 used an Amway-esque sales pitch to recruit sellers of nutritional supplements, snack foods and skin-care products.) In Western Michigan, what matters isn’t how Amway is run, but what the DeVoses have done for the community. Drive through downtown Grand Rapids, Michigan’s second-largest metropolis, and the family’s contributions are omnipresent. There’s the Helen DeVos Children’s Hospital. A few blocks west, hugging the Grand River that bisects the city, you’ll find the sleek DeVos Place Convention Center, the DeVos Performance Hall and the Amway Grand Plaza Hotel. Across the career graduate essay, water, the shakespeare racism, campus of Grand Valley State University is english anchored by the spacious Richard M. DeVos Center. A few blocks north is the DeVos Learning Center, housed at the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum. (You would be forgiven if you assumed that DeVos, not Ford, had been president.) Today, the DeVoses’ charitable giving and local boosterism mean that people in West Michigan have a different view of them than Michiganders elsewhere in the state. “The political narrative that has grown around [the family] is unfair,” says Whitney, whose Hauenstein Center has received grant funding from the DeVos Family Foundation. “They have made life better for a lot of people, and shakespeare othello I can’t say that loudly enough.” The first and second generations of the DeVos family.

Left–right: Dick Betsy, Cheri, Helen Richard, Daniel Pamella and Doug Maria. | Credit: Orlando Magic Media Guide. The DeVos family’s charitable giving and political activism sprawls across three generations. It’s not just Dick and Betsy, but Richard and Helen’s other children, too. Essay! There’s Daniel DeVos, who chairs the Orlando Magic, an NBA franchise the family owns, and his wife, Pamella. There’s Doug DeVos, Amway’s current president and shakespeare othello the chair of the othello, executive committee of the National Constitution Center, and essay his wife, Maria. There’s Cheri DeVos, who sits on good will hunting movie the board at Alticor, Amway’s parent company.

And there’s their children, a generation of young adults ready to carry the baton. Over time, the DeVos clan has evolved an unusual and highly structured internal governance system. Family patriarch Richard DeVos, now 90 and retired from an active role in Amway, explained the shakespeare othello, formal structure of this family government in english his 2014 book, Simply Rich : “We formed the DeVos Family Council, which is made up of our children and their spouses and meets four times a year. Shakespeare Essay! The Family Council just approved a family constitution that essentially captures our family mission and hunting values. Othello Racism! … The Family Council also articulates how the family will work together in managing our shared financial interests and our philanthropy. “We also have the Family Assembly …. When grandchildren turn 16, they are inducted … in career change essay a formal ceremony that everyone attends.

An aunt or uncle makes a presentation of their achievements, reminds them of racism essay, their responsibility as they go forward, and affirms them as a member of the Family Assembly. … They are able to career graduate essay vote in the meetings at age 25, after they have met additional qualifications for taking on this added responsibility.” This collective approach is how the family runs their home lives, too. The DeVoses’ myriad properties are managed through a single private company, RDV Corporation, which both manages the family’s investments and operates as a home office, paying the racism essay, family’s employees, maintaining the DeVoses’ residences and assuring them as frictionless a life as possible. Hunting Movie Essay! (The duties outlined by one recent property-manager job with RDV Corporation include “ensur[ing] doors are well-oiled to avoid squeaking” and that “broken toys [are] repaired or disposed of.”) This family-government approach has so far enabled the DeVos family to avoid the public schisms and disagreements that have plagued other multigenerational dynasties. Othello Racism! Any dissent is hashed out in antithesis tera private, and that enables the family to focus its collective efforts with the precision of a scalpel and the power of a chainsaw. If you’re a politician who wins the family’s support, you’ll receive several maxed-out checks from multiple family members, all in a bundle. Across those efforts, one constant is the DeVos family’s devout Christian beliefs, and shakespeare the indivisibility they see between Christian and good hunting Calvinistic notions and their conservative politics. “The real strength of America is racism its religious tradition,” Richard DeVos wrote in Believe! . “Too many people today are willing to act as if God had nothing whatsoever to do with it. … This country was built on help with essays a religious heritage, and essay we’d better get back to it. We had better start telling people that faith in God is the real strength of America!” In the mid-1970s, DeVos made major donations to the Christian Freedom Foundation and Third Century Publishers, an outlet that printed books and career graduate essay pamphlets designed to strengthen the ties between Christianity and free-market conservatism; among those products was a guidebook instructing conservative Christians how to win elections and help America become “as it was when first founded—a ‘Christian Republic.’” Clockwise, from upper left: Amway cofounders Jay Van Andel (left) and Richard DeVos (center) meet in othello racism the Oval Office with President Gerald Ford, who is good essay holding a copy of Richard’s book, “Believe!”; former Florida Gov. Shakespeare Othello Racism! Jeb Bush and Richard DeVos during a 2009 event at the Scripps Research Institute; an aerial shot of Dick Betsy DeVos’s primary residence in graduate essay Ada, Michigan; Dick Betsy enjoy their courtside seats at an Orlando Magic game—an NBA team owned by the DeVos family. | National Archives; AP; Getty Images.

Though they aren’t quite as large or wealthy as the DeVoses, the othello racism, Prince family—even further west, in Holland, Michigan—shares one big trait in common with their in-laws: the idea that patriotism and politics are inseparable from Christianity. Graduate Essay! Elsa Prince Broekhuizen, Betsy’s mother, donated $75,000 to the successful 2004 ballot measure to ban same-sex marriage in othello Michigan; four years later, she gave $450,000 to radiography research papers an identical initiative in othello California. Betsy’s brother, Erik Prince, founded Blackwater, the military contractor that gained notoriety in othello essay 2007, when its employees fired into a crowd of Iraqi civilians, killing 17. (In 2009, two former Blackwater employees alleged in federal court that Prince “views himself as a Christian crusader.”) Throughout his adult life, Betsy’s father, Ed, donated handsomely to essay two religious colleges in academic Michigan, Hope and Calvin, the latter being his wife’s beloved alma mater in shakespeare othello essay Grand Rapids. Antithesis Tera! But his most important contribution—one that has shaped much of the past three decades of shakespeare, conservative politics—came in 1988, when Prince donated millions in seed funding to launch the Family Research Council, the conservative Christian group that became one of the most potent political forces on the religious right. Will Essay! “Ed Prince was not an empire builder,” Family Research Council President Gary Bauer wrote to supporters after Prince’s sudden death in 1995. “He was a Kingdom builder.” In the 1960s and ’70s, Ed and Elsa Prince advanced God’s Kingdom from the racism essay, end of graduate, a cul-de-sac just a few miles from Lake Michigan. There, they taught their four children—Elisabeth (Betsy), Eileen, Emilie and Erik—a deeply religious, conservative, free-market view of the othello essay, world, emphasizing the importance of self-reliance and antithesis tera sending them to private schools that would reinforce the values they celebrated at home, small-government conservatism chief among them. Ed Prince was not an empire builder,” Family Research Council President Gary Bauer wrote after Prince’s death in shakespeare racism 1995. “He was a Kingdom builder.” In a breakfast speech to change graduate essay volunteers at Holland Christian Schools on May 12, 1975, Ed Prince warned that lazy and neglectful U.S. Shakespeare Racism! citizens were not doing their fair share, forcing the government to, as a Holland Sentinel article described it, “play an increasingly larger role in our daily and personal lives.” (You don’t have to listen too hard to hear an echo of Ed Prince in papers his daughter, Betsy. “[For welfare recipients] to racism sit and be handed money from the government because they think a job like that is beneath them,” the heiress sighed to help with academic the Detroit Free Press in othello racism essay 1992. “If I had to work on a line in a factory, I would do that before I would stand in line for a welfare check.”) From an early age, Betsy was pushed to compete.

In 1965, she was one of help with, two second-graders to make entries in Holland’s annual tulip festival (a citywide valentine to the area’s Dutch heritage). In middle school, she entered a poster and essay contest about crime prevention. In her teenage years, she was a member of the Holland City Recreation Swim Team. Betsy excelled at the breaststroke. In August 1972, she won the othello, Mid-Michigan Conference Championship, a contest in english which younger siblings Emilie and Eileen Prince placed third and fifth, respectively). After graduating from high school in 1975, Betsy enrolled at Calvin College, her mother’s alma mater. Calvin’s mission, as stated in the 1975–1976 course catalog, was “to prepare students to live productive lives of faith to the glory of God in shakespeare contemporary society—not merely lives that have a place for religion … but lives which in shakespeare essay every part, in every manifestation, in their very essence, are Christian.” On campus, Betsy became politically active, volunteering for the presidential campaign of hometown hero President Gerald Ford, who was facing off against movie star-cum-California Governor Ronald Reagan. Racism Essay! She joined a pro-Ford group called “Friends of the First Family,” and help academic along with her compatriots, took trips to Indiana and Ohio to participate in the Ford campaign’s “scatter blitzes.” Betsy’s campaigning earned the attention of the Ford team, which tapped her to attend that year's Republican National Convention in shakespeare essay Kansas City as a participant in the “Presidentials” program for young Republicans. The budding politicos attended training on campaign strategy and political techniques, and were divided into groups based on geography so that they could get acquainted with potential allies from their home states.

There were also more practical desires for a squadron of young volunteers at a contested convention: “Anywhere there needed to be noise, there were always kids,” Betsy Prince told a reporter for the Holland Sentinel in 1976 (“Betsy Helps Cheer Ford Through in Kansas City,” read the headline, beside a photo of a T-shirt-clad Betsy sporting a feathered, Farrah Fawcett-lite hairdo). Around this time, Betsy Prince met the two men with whom she would form the career change graduate essay, most important political relationships of her adult life. One became her husband; the other became her governor. If there’s one law of essay, physics that defined how Michigan politics moved in the 1990s, it’s that Governor John Engler was a master of the shakespeare racism, state Legislature. His political acumen—honed over a 20-year run in the Legislature, during which the shakespeare othello racism, 22-year-old boy wonder grew into his sturdy tree-stump physique and shakespeare essay Ben Franklin hairline—was legendary even before he won a stunning upset in the 1990 governor’s race. Never was that mastery more evident than on July 19, 1993, a date that set into motion every battle over education the essay, state has seen since—a day that led to will movie Betsy DeVos becoming Donald Trump’s pick for shakespeare racism essay secretary of antithesis tera, education.

Deep into his first term, Engler wanted to othello racism essay show progress in his signature proposal to reduce the state’s onerous property taxes by 20 percent. Property taxes being the funding source for Michigan’s public school system, Democrats ruled out papers, any plan that did not include a replacement for the lost revenue, and since any new revenue would require legislators to othello essay vote for antithesis tera new taxes or fees, that option had little appeal heading into the 1994 campaign. On July 19, 1993, Democratic state Senator Debbie Stabenow proposed an amendment that was interpreted as an attempt to point out the absurdity of Engler’s plan: Why not cut them by 100 percent without having any replacement revenue source? Democrats were dumbstruck by shakespeare othello racism what happened next: Engler whipped the state Legislature into action, and in the course of a 24-hour period, the Senate and antithesis tera House eradicated property taxes—in the process completely defunding Michigan’s $6.5 billion public-education system. In the ensuing crisis, Engler legalized charter schools. Throughout the 1990s, Republican Governor John Engler was a force without parallel in Michigan politics. Shakespeare! | AP Photos. By that point, Betsy DeVos was already a major Engler backer—she had served as the GOP chair in good will powerful Kent County, and in 1992, won one of the state’s seats on the RNC, ousting Ronna Romney (sister-in-law of Mitt Romney and mother of Ronna Romney McDaniel, whom Trump has chosen to helm the shakespeare othello racism, RNC).

But education reform had long been a passion, and now she had an opportunity to academic help the governor who was enacting the changes she so badly wanted. In May 1996, the chair of the Michigan Republican Party stepped down to run for othello essay Congress. John Engler had just the person for the job. Betsy DeVos accepted, and the following year, decided to run for a full term as party chair. If Engler thought he had anointed a rubber stamp, he quickly learned otherwise.

In January 1997, DeVos cleared house, unilaterally firing all of the party’s top directors and othello racism pausing all contracts with vendors, blaming them for shakespeare othello essay the party’s losses months earlier. “Betsy regarded the governor’s input as good advice, not an order,” Greg McNeilly, a close associate of good hunting, Betsy DeVos, told an Engler biographer years later. “That’s when the problems started.” After an enormously successful 1998 campaign wherein Engler won a third and shakespeare othello racism essay final term in a landslide, the governor encouraged Betsy DeVos to run for research chair of the RNC. DeVos had a different battle in mind: a statewide campaign to legalize school vouchers. The Michigan state constitution expressly forbids public funds from being used to pay for private, religious schools. Racism Essay! Betsy DeVos aimed to with academic essays change that via a constitutional amendment—Proposal 1 on the November 2000 ballots. Engler was opposed to the idea—the timing was off. “I was pretty certain that it was premature to othello racism essay go to with the ballot in 2000,” Engler says, “because if you’re going to go to the ballot, you want to win.” The DeVoses had counted on his support, and when it didn’t materialize, things soured. (“[John Engler] would have a hard time being a first mate even on shakespeare the largest ship in the world,” Betsy DeVos later wrote. Papers! “I think he’d sooner be captain of a smaller boat than the first mate on a much bigger ship.”) DeVos quickly realized that the situation was unsustainable. So she hatched a plan designed to surprise Engler just as his opposition had surprised her: She would resign as state GOP chair without notifying him in advance. She chose a date in February 2000 when she knew Engler would be in shakespeare othello racism Washington.

Around 9 a.m., she left a message on his phone, informing him that she would announce her resignation at an early-afternoon news conference. Engler quickly changed his itinerary and booked a flight home for shakespeare his own news conference that evening. Shakespeare Othello! Publicly, Engler saved face, but the message from the DeVoses was unmistakable: We are a political force with our own agenda, like it or not. The message from the DeVoses was unmistakable: We are a political force with our own agenda, like it or not. Now, however, the DeVoses were on their own, pushing Prop 1 with minimal support from the radiography research papers, state’s Republican establishment. Among the broader public, the opposition was fierce and widespread. “That was one of the best campaigns I was ever on,” says Julie Matuzak, who was, at the time, the American Federation of Teachers’ top political hand in the state. While the DeVoses campaigned on shakespeare othello racism essay expanding educational choices for antithesis tera parents and shakespeare othello racism essay students, their opponents reframed the issue. “When you really looked at it, the parents weren’t the shakespeare racism, ones with the choices; the essay, parochial schools were the ones with the choices,” Matuzak remembers. “If all you do is research transfer the shakespeare othello racism essay, money, you don't transfer any of the other requirements that are put on public schools. Public schools are required to antithesis tera take everyone who comes through the door.

But private schools, parochial schools, get to pick and choose. Shakespeare Racism Essay! … It’s not really the parents who have the choice, it’s the schools. And people ultimately understood that.” When Election Day came, the result was overwhelming: Proposal 1 failed with 69 percent of voters opposed. Across the spectrum, political observers viewed the initiative as a debacle that drove up Democratic turnout and likely cost Republicans a U.S. Career Essay! Senate seat, as Debbie Stabenow defeated incumbent Senator Spencer Abraham by 67,000 votes. There was a silver lining for the DeVoses, albeit one not immediately apparent. They had established a purity test for fellow Republicans: Had they supported Prop 1? And in unintentionally contributing to Senator Abraham’s loss, they had created a scenario in which, once Engler was term-limited in January 2003, the state GOP would be without any marquee statewide officeholders. No governor. Neither U.S. senator.

An attorney general and secretary of state without any previous statewide experience. There was a power vacuum in the Republican Party, and the DeVoses were the only ones who could fill it. Which they did, with lots and lots of money. When Dick and Betsy DeVos are asked why they’ve chosen to mount a personal crusade for othello racism essay education reform, they often cite their family’s charitable giving, which puts them into contact with scholarship applicants. Shakespeare Racism Essay! For years, the DeVoses read reams of personal essays filled with wrenching stories of dire finances and an abiding hope in the transformative impact of education.

Those stories, the DeVoses have said, made it clear that something had to change. But there’s another reason why Dick and Betsy DeVos want to change America’s schools. Shakespeare Othello Essay! They see it as the literal battleground for making a more Christian, God-centered society. In 2001, Betsy DeVos spoke at “The Gathering,” an annual meeting of some of America’s wealthiest Christians. There, she told her fellow believers about the animating force behind her education-reform campaigning, referencing the biblical battlefield where the good hunting essay, Israelites fought the Philistines: “It goes back to what I mentioned, the concept of really being active in the Shephelah of our culture—to impact our culture in ways that are not the racism, traditional funding-the-Christian-organization route, but that really may have greater Kingdom gain in the long run by changing the way we approach things—in this case, the system of education in essays the country.” Dick DeVos, on stage with his wife, echoed her sentiments with a lament of his own. “The church—which ought to be, in our view, far more central to othello racism essay the life of the essay, community—has been displaced by the public school,” Dick DeVos said. “We just can think of no better way to rebuild our families and our communities than to have that circle of church and school and family much more tightly focused and built on othello racism a consistent worldview.”

For the DeVoses, an electoral loss—even an embarrassing one—is but a small skirmish on that Shephelah. Prop 1’s failure was evidence that they needed to redraw their battle plans for radiography research a much larger war. Betsy DeVos stressed that Christians need to focus on othello essay “greater Kingdom gain” by “changing … the system of education in the country. Dick DeVos echoed that: As the center of the community, “The church … has been displaced by the public school.” They unveiled the new strategy in 2001, the help with, same year they spoke at The Gathering: Instead of direct appeals to voters, the DeVoses would devote their resources to PACs and nonprofit organizations to push legislators to enact the changes they desired. Thus, the Great Lakes Education Project, or GLEP, was founded.

Initially, few in Michigan knew quite what to othello essay make of GLEP. Radiography! At the othello, time, most PACs were affiliated with membership organizations, like a labor union or chamber of commerce, and focused on issues important to those members. GLEP wasn’t anything like that. It was a largely family-funded effort with a singular focus on education reform; a multipronged structure gave GLEP great latitude to advocate, from lobbying legislators to purchasing attack ads on radiography TV. In the othello racism, years since the DeVoses debuted GLEP, we’ve witnessed the nationwide rise of with academic, single-issue PACs funded by a small number of extraordinarily wealthy donors, especially since the Citizens United ruling uncorked the dam of corporate money. “The [DeVos] family has been forward-thinking in their use of money to influence politics,” says Craig Mauger of the Michigan Campaign Finance Network. “And what’s happening with them in Michigan seems to be an example of where we’re going as a country with the concentration of othello, power in radiography our politics.” Betsy DeVos has pushed a drastic transformation of Michigan’s education system, with mixed and shakespeare othello racism controversial results. In 2002, the first election of GLEP’s existence, its PAC had more money than the Michigan Education Association, United Auto Workers, or any Democratic-affiliated PAC in the state.

And if they lacked the influence and statewide presence of those groups, it was only a matter of time. “They take a very long-term view,” says Matuzak. “If you pick up a few new Republican legislators every two years, and throw a fair amount of money at legislators who are already there, you can create coalitions of folks who can tackle what seem to research be impossibly large issues.” It was the lesson of John Engler’s governorship: If you want to get things done, control the state Legislature. Shakespeare Racism! But you can’t get that without inspiring some degree of fear. One Republican who caught the DeVos family’s ire was Paul Muxlow, a realtor and former educator elected to the state house in with academic 2010, representing a mostly rural district in southeast Michigan. Shakespeare Othello! Muxlow was a dependable conservative, but disliked the idea of eliminating the cap on the number of charter schools. While he was fine with charter schools in underserved communities, he said he couldn’t support them in rural areas—“It would kill those districts,” he explained to the Detroit Free Press in 2014. When the cap elimination came before the state Legislature in 2011, it passed with Muxlow voting against essays it. Racism! The following year, when he ran for reelection, he faced a blitz of attacks from GLEP, which didn’t even need his district, but spent just under $185,000 to take him out in radiography the primary.

Muxlow won by just 132 votes. Privately, many Michigan Republicans are afraid of getting on the DeVoses’ bad side. “At the American Federation of Teachers, there were always Republicans we’d endorse,” recalls Matuzak, who retired from the union in 2014. “And it got to the point where … the Republicans would say, ‘Please don’t endorse me because it will hurt me with the DeVoses.’ They’d send back money because the shakespeare essay, DeVoses would punish them.” (In an email to POLITICO, the chief of persuasive english, staff to shakespeare one Republican state senator declined comment for shakespeare this story, saying it would “not be productive” before linking to two anti-DeVos columns in shakespeare essay the Detroit Free Press . The articles “speak for themselves,” he wrote.) “The Republicans would say, ‘Please don’t endorse me because it will hurt me with the DeVoses.’ They’d send back money because the DeVoses would punish them.” “There’s a general awareness if they’re not supporting you,” says John Truscott, a longtime Republican operative in Michigan and antithesis tera the president of othello racism essay, Truscott-Rossman, a powerhouse bipartisan PR firm that represents the DeVos family on certain matters. “If you’re always getting along with everybody, you’re probably not making a difference.” Year by year, cycle by cycle, the essay, DeVoses built a state Legislature in their own image. By the time Democrat Jennifer Granholm was term-limited in 2010 and Republican Rick Snyder was elected governor without any political experience, it was the DeVoses, not Snyder, who knew how to othello racism get things done. Unlike the Engler years, this time, they had more sway than the governor. Today, 16 years after the DeVoses’ failed constitutional amendment, this constant push has totally remade Michigan education. Research! The cap on shakespeare othello essay the number of charter schools eliminated and attempts to provide public oversight have been defeated, making Michigan’s charters among the antithesis tera, most-plentiful and least-regulated in the nation.

About 80 percent of Michigan’s 300 publicly funded charters are operated by for-profit companies, more than any other state. This means that taxpayer dollars that would otherwise go to traditional public schools are instead used to buy supplies such as textbooks and desks that become private property. Othello Racism Essay! It is, essentially, a giant experiment in good essay what happens when you shift resources away from shakespeare racism public schools. And while a state constitutional amendment legalizing public funding for religious schools is unlikely to win public support anytime soon, charters have had much the same impact. While a charter school cannot be religiously affiliated, many walk a fine line, appointing, for instance, a preacher as head of the school board or renting school space from a church. “They have a couple ways of essay, getting around it,” says Gary Miron, a professor of education at othello racism essay, Western Michigan University who specializes in charter school evaluation and research. “I’ve been in charter schools where I’ve seen religious prayers to Jesus Christ—they mention Christ by antithesis tera name—and prayer circles with students, teachers and parents.” For students, the results of the othello, Michigan charter boom have been mixed.

Most charters perform below the state’s averages on tests, even while their enrollment has grown to include more than 110,000 students, nearly half of whom live in the Detroit area. Good Will Movie! A 2013 Stanford study that compared Detroit’s charters with its traditional public schools found that the charter students gained the shakespeare othello essay, equivalent of more than three months’ learning per year more than their counterparts at traditional public schools. English! But that doesn’t mean they’re performing at a high level, simply that by some measures, certain charters marginally outperform the shakespeare othello racism, historically challenged Detroit public schools. Whatever the quality outcome, the political lesson isn’t lost. The DeVoses have transplanted their organizational model to antithesis tera other states—New Jersey, Ohio, Louisiana, Virginia, Wisconsin, among them. They have done this by shakespeare racism essay marshaling forces under the umbrella of their American Federation for Children, a nationwide campaign for school reform that has attracted high-profile speakers to its conferences, including New Jersey Senator Cory Booker, former Governor Bobby Jindal, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and former D.C. school czar Michelle Rhee. In the transformation of Michigan from a blue-collar Rust Belt Democratic stronghold to essay a free-market, Republican conquest, no issue may be more symbolic than the enactment of shakespeare, right-to-work legislation.

On its face, the debate over right-to-work is about an arcane bit of labor law—whether workers under a contract that was collectively negotiated by good hunting a union should have to pay dues to that union, regardless of shakespeare essay, whether they’re members. But that debate is a proxy for a larger battle that is less about employment law than political jockeying: Unions tends to align with Democrats, and as a result, if it becomes more difficult for unions to good hunting movie essay collect dues, they’ll be weakened and less able to othello racism essay advocate for the political causes of antithesis tera, their choosing. Days after the 2012 election, Dick DeVos picked up the phone and othello rallied Republican lawmakers to pass right-to-work in lame duck while they still had the votes, reportedly promising financial support to those members who would find themselves facing tough reelections and suggesting he would back primary campaigns against those who didn’t step in line. “There’s one family who gets these people elected, and consequently, you can assume they can get them unelected, too,” says Gretchen Whitmer, who was the state Senate’s Democratic leader at the time. “There’s one family who gets these people elected, and consequently, you can assume they can get them unelected, too,” says Gretchen Whitmer, the former Democratic leader of the state senate. To opponents, right to work ran counter to every story Michigan told itself about who it was, a repudiation of antithesis tera, generations of hard-won gains. In metro Detroit, labor’s historic triumphs are retold like folklore by men with thick, calloused hands, lest future generations forget the essay, Battle of the Overpass or the Flint Sit-Down Strike.

Right-to-work, labor feared, would undo much of that. Though anxious, labor officials had reason to shakespeare essay feel confident. Othello Racism! On November 26, 2012, the Monday after Thanksgiving, Republican Governor Rick Snyder had reassured them that right-to-work was “not on my agenda.” “The impression we had from the beginning was the governor wanted to keep this thing off his desk,” Steven Cook, president of the Michigan Education Association, said at antithesis tera, the time. Over the course of a few days in late November and shakespeare racism essay early December, everything changed. Perhaps it had something to do with the $1.8 million blitz of TV and career graduate radio ads promoting right-to-work the othello, DeVoses bankrolled. On December 6, eight days after Snyder met with labor leaders, the governor flipped on the issue, announcing his intent to sign right-to-work into law. “The day it became apparent, he wasn’t returning phone calls from any of us,” remembers Whitmer. Protesters in graduate essay and around the state capitol in Lansing on December 11, 2012. Essay! Governor 4 Sale,” read one sign. Hunting Essay! “Call 1-800-Dick-DeVos.” | AP Photo/Paul Sancya.

The next five days saw large protests on racism essay the Capitol grounds, culminating with an othello essay, estimated 12,500 demonstrators on December 11, the day the House voted on shakespeare othello racism essay the legislation. Two-thousand demonstrators flooded into the Capitol, sitting in the hallways and laying down in the rotunda. They stomped their feet, chanted familiar slogans, sang “Solidarity Forever”—a cacophony that some in papers the House chamber one story up initially confused for shakespeare othello racism thunder. Right-to-work passed by change graduate essay a handful of votes, including an Engler-esque flourish: The legislation was amended to include a small appropriation, which meant that once signed, it would be impossible for voters to repeal by public referendum. Outside the Capitol, state police donned riot gear while officers on horseback pushed protesters away from the othello essay, building. Loudspeakers blared Tom Petty’s “I Won’t Back Down,” and as the wind picked up, four 20-foot-tall inflatable rat balloons skittered from side to antithesis tera side.

Each rat represented one of the key players protesters blamed for right-to-work’s hasty adoption: the governor, the House speaker, the Senate majority leader, and—the only unelected member of the rat pack—Dick DeVos. It isn’t known what, if anything, the DeVoses said to Governor Snyder to change his mind and detonate this atomic bomb in Michigan politics. But Snyder would’ve been under no illusions about the possible consequences of shakespeare othello essay, inaction. “There was all kinds of scuttlebutt that if Snyder didn't sign up for right-to-work in 2012, he would’ve bought himself a primary in 2014,” says Demas of Inside Michigan Politics . “I think Snyder understands the antithesis tera, powerful place the DeVoses have in Michigan, and that it’s often more trouble than it’s worth to tangle with them.” In the weeks since Donald Trump announced that he would nominate DeVos for secretary of education, Michigan’s political circles have been abuzz. As ever, the shakespeare othello essay, DeVoses are loved and hated, with little in between. “She is a strong supporter of public education and of quality education for every child,” says Engler. “It’s horrifying. It’s a slap in the face,” says Whitmer. Career Change! “The only people who have anything to worry about shakespeare essay, are those running failing schools,” says Truscott. “It is help as if you were to appoint some radical pacifist as secretary of defense,” says Jack Lessenberry, a senior political analyst for Michigan Public Radio. After years operating behind the shakespeare racism, scenes, Betsy DeVos is set to become the public face of education policy in America—an advocate of private Christian education helming the largest public-education agency in the country.

Most education policymaking happens at the state and local level; the Education Department administers financial aid and collects and analyzes educational data, but doesn’t set state standards or school curricula. Even so, the position is a considerable bully pulpit, one with the ability to define the essay, national discussion on education. Donald Trump applauds as Betsy DeVos speaks at Trump’s “Thank You USA” rally in Grand Rapids, December 9, 2016. | Reuters/Mike Segar. As secretary, it’s likely DeVos will pursue a national expansion of racism essay, school choice and with charters. In this, DeVos has an ally in President-elect Trump. Othello Racism! “There's no failed policy more in need of urgent change than our government-run education monopoly,” Trump said in research papers a September 8 speech. “It is time to break up that monopoly.” In that speech, Trump proposed a $20-billion block grant program to shakespeare essay fund national vouchers administered at the state level. Radiography! “Parents will be able to send their kids to the desired public, private or religious school of shakespeare othello racism, their choice,” Trump said.

It’s what Betsy DeVos has wanted all along. Barring a surprise at confirmation hearings, the DeVos family will soon have a seat in Washington. But a question lingers: Will they continue as activists? While there’s a long history of english, Cabinet members donating to campaigns prior to assuming their roles atop the government, it would be fairly unprecedented for a Cabinet secretary to shakespeare othello racism essay push policy within the good will, government while her family simultaneously funnels millions to lobby and campaign for those same policies. Racism Essay! But the DeVos family isn’t shy about using its clout. Some donors couch their push for influence in the anodyne language of “improvement” and “empowerment.” Betsy DeVos is more upfront. “My family is the largest single contributor of soft money to the national Republican party,” she wrote in a 1997 editorial for othello Roll Call . “I have decided, however, to stop taking offense at the suggestion that we are buying influence. Now I simply concede the point. They are right. We do expect some things in return.” ““I have decided … to stop taking offense at essay, the suggestion that we are buying influence,” Betsy DeVos wrote in a 1997 editorial for Roll Call. Racism Essay! “Now I simply concede the point. Essay! They are right. We do expect some things in career graduate essay return.”

It’s one thing to shakespeare othello racism be an advocate and quite another to be a policymaker in a realm where you have little professional training or personal experience—a charge that DeVos’ opponents are quick to lob. If confirmed by the Senate, DeVos would be the first secretary of persuasive english, education in at least 30 years without any experience as a government official, school administrator or teacher. “She’s not someone with an racism, education background—she never went to a public school, never sent a child to a public school,” says Whitmer, who recently announced her candidacy for movie Michigan governor. “It’s just stunning that they’d want to export the shakespeare essay, ugliness [the DeVoses] have brought to change essay the education debate in Michigan and shakespeare send it to the rest of the nation.” Even so, among the DeVoses’ skeptics, there are those who strike a hopeful, if cautious, tone. “I think Mrs. Will Movie! DeVos could potentially be a really good secretary of education if she allowed parents and school districts to make policy at the local level,” says Daniel Quinn, executive director of the Great Lakes Center for Education Research and othello racism Practice, a nonprofit that receives a portion of help with academic essays, its funding from the othello, National Education Association. Radiography Research Papers! “But at the same time, I’m concerned.” Julie Matuzak, the DeVoses’ foe from the 2000 voucher fight, disagrees strongly with DeVos’ appointment but concedes the shakespeare, couple has good intentions. Academic! “I do believe they have a deep-seated belief in quality education for all children,” says Matuzak. “They see it as a continuum of public education that includes everything—private schools, parochial schools, charters, public schools. But they believe in the market force as the rule of the universe.” CLARIFICATION: An earlier version of this piece imprecisely described Calvinism and othello Max Weber’s study of shakespeare othello, it.

The article has been updated with a more accurate description. Zack Stanton is othello racism essay digital editor of Politico Magazine. Follow him on Twitter: @zackstanton .

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The biggest threat facing middle-age men isn’t smoking or obesity. It’s loneliness. mario zucca for the boston globe. LET’S START WITH THE MOMENT I realized I was already a loser, which was just after I was more or less told that I was destined to become one. I’d been summoned to an editor’s office at the Globe Magazine with the old “We have a story we think you’d be perfect for.” This is how editors talk when they’re about to con you into doing something you don’t want to do. Here was the pitch: We want you to write about how middle-aged men have no friends. Excuse me? I have plenty of othello essay friends. Are you calling me a loser? You are. The editor told me there was all sorts of evidence out there about how men, as they age, let their close friendships lapse, and that that fact can cause all sorts of shakespeare racism problems and have a terrible impact on their health.

Read more features from The Friends Issue. We explore the racism essay, importance of antithesis tera friendships among women and men, the shakespeare othello essay, complexities of a friendship with a convicted killer, and more. I told the othello essay, editor I’d think about it. This is how reporters talk when they’re trying to othello racism get out of antithesis tera something they don’t want to shakespeare othello essay do. As I walked back to my desk in the newsroom a distance of maybe 100 yards I quickly took stock of my life to try to prove to myself that I was not, in fact, perfect for this story. First of all, there was my buddy Mark. We went to high school together, and I still talk to him all the help, time, and we hang out all the . . . Wait, how often do we actually hang out? Maybe four or five times a year? And then there was my other best friend from high school, Rory, and . . Othello Racism Essay? . I genuinely could not remember the last time I’d seen him.

Had it already been a year? Entirely possible. There were all those other good friends who feel as if they’re still in my lives because we keep tabs on one another via social media, but as I ran down the list of those I’d consider real, true, lifelong friends, I realized that it had been years since I’d seen many of them, even decades for persuasive english essay, a few. By the time I got back to my desk, I realized that I was indeed perfect for shakespeare, this story, not because I was unusual in any way, but because my story is essay, very, very typical. Racism Essay? And as I looked into persuasive essay what that means, I realized that in the long term, I was heading down a path that was very, very dangerous.

Vivek Murthy, the surgeon general of the United States, has said many times in recent years that the most prevalent health issue in the country is essay, not cancer or heart disease or obesity. Will Hunting Movie Essay? It is isolation. I TURNED 40 IN MAY. I have a wife and two young boys. I moved to the suburbs a few years ago, where I own a fairly ugly home with white vinyl siding and two aging station wagons with crushed Goldfish crackers serving as floor mats. When I step on a Lego in the middle of the racism, night on my way to antithesis tera the bathroom, I try to tell myself that it’s cute that I’ve turned into shakespeare othello a sitcom dad. During the week, much of my waking life revolves around work. Or getting ready for with academic, work. Shakespeare Essay? Or driving to work. Or driving home from work. Or texting my wife to hunting essay tell her I’m going to be late getting home from work.

Much of everything else revolves around my kids. I spend a lot of time asking them where their shoes are, and they spend a lot of shakespeare racism essay time asking me when they can have some “dada time.” It is the world’s cutest phrase, and help academic essays it makes me feel guilty every time I hear it, because they are asking it in racism essay moments when they know I cannot give it to them when I am distracted by an e-mail on antithesis tera, my phone or I’m dealing with the constant, boring logistics of running a home. We can usually squeeze in an hour of racism essay “dada time” before bed mostly wrestling or reading books and so the real “dada time” happens on weekends. English? That’s my promise. Racism? “I have to antithesis tera go to shakespeare work, but this weekend,” I tell them, “we can have ‘dada time.’ ” I love “dada time.” And I’m pretty good about squeezing in an hour of “me time” each day for exercise, which usually means getting up before dawn to go to the gym or for career change, a run. But when everything adds up, there is no real “friend time” left. Yes, I have friends at work and at the gym, but those are accidents of proximity.

I rarely see those people anywhere outside those environments, because when everything adds up, I have left almost no time for friends. I have structured myself into being a loser. “YOU SHOULD USE THIS story suggestion as a call to do something about it.” That’s Dr. Richard S. Schwartz, a Cambridge psychiatrist, and I had reached out to shakespeare racism essay him because he and his wife, Dr. Career Change Graduate Essay? Jacqueline Olds, literally wrote the book on shakespeare othello racism, this topic, The Lonely American: Drifting Apart in the Twenty-First Century. He agreed that my story was very typical. When people with children become overscheduled, they don’t shortchange their children, they shortchange their friendships. “And the public health dangers of that are incredibly clear,” he says. Beginning in good essay the 1980s, Schwartz says, study after study started showing that those who were more socially isolated were much more likely to racism die during a given period than their socially connected neighbors, even after you corrected for age, gender, and othello essay lifestyle choices like exercising and eating right.

Loneliness has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke and the progression of Alzheimer’s. One study found that it can be as much of a long-term risk factor as smoking. The research doesn’t get any rosier from there. In 2015, a huge study out of Brigham Young University, using data from 3.5 million people collected over 35 years, found that those who fall into the categories of loneliness, isolation, or even simply living on their own see their risk of shakespeare essay premature death rise 26 to 32 percent. Now consider that in the United States, nearly a third of help people older than 65 live alone; by age 85, that has jumped to shakespeare othello about half. Add all of will hunting movie this up, and shakespeare othello essay you can see why the help with essays, surgeon general is declaring loneliness to be a public health epidemic. “Since my wife and essay I have written about loneliness and with essays social isolation, we see a fair number of othello racism essay people for whom this is a big problem,” Schwartz continues. But there’s a catch. Help? “Often they don’t come saying they’re lonely.

Most people have the experience you had in your editor’s office: Admitting you’re lonely feels very much like admitting you’re a loser. Shakespeare Essay? Psychiatry has worked hard to research papers de-stigmatize things like depression, and to a large part it has been successful. People are comfortable saying they’re depressed. Racism Essay? But they’re not comfortable saying they’re lonely, because you’re the kid sitting alone in the cafeteria.” I’m not that kid. I’m gregarious. I have family around me all the time, or I’m around “friends” at work or elsewhere. I comment on their Facebook posts.

They comment on mine. My wife and I also have other couples we like and see often. Persuasive Essay? It’s easy to fall into the trap of believing that’s good enough and for othello, many men it is, at shakespeare othello racism essay, least until their spouse gets the shakespeare racism essay, friends in the divorce. I’m hesitant to say I’m lonely, though I’m clearly a textbook case of the silent majority of middle-aged men who won’t admit they’re starved for friendship, even if all signs point to the contrary. Now that I’ve been forced to recognize it, the question is antithesis tera, what to do about it. Like really do about it. Because the othello racism, tricks I’ve been using clearly do not work.

I’ve been on “guy dates” with people I like maybe I met them through my kids or on an assignment or whatever but all too often those are one and shakespeare essay done. It’s not that we don’t hit it off. We’ll go have that beer, and othello racism we’ll spend that beer talking about how we’re overscheduled and never get to hang with our friends, vaguely making plans to do something again, though we both know it’s probably not going to happen certainly not the grand “Let’s hike the Appalachian Trail” ideas that start getting thrown out after the research, third beer. It’s a polite way of kicking the ball down the road, but never into the goal. I like you.

You like me. Is that enough? Does that make us friends? mario zucca for the boston globe. IN FEBRUARY AT A CONFERENCE in Boston, a researcher from othello essay Britain’s University of Oxford presented study results that most guys understand intuitively: Men need an activity together to make and keep a bond. Women can maintain friendships over the phone. My wife is capable of having long phone talks with her sister in shakespeare othello Virginia or her friend Casey (whom she sees in shakespeare essay person almost every day), and I kind of look at it with amazement. Papers? I hate the phone.

My guy friends seem to share my feelings, because our phone conversations seem to naturally last about five minutes before someone says, “All right, I’ll catch up with you later.” Dudes aren’t going to maintain a bromance that way, or even over a once-in-a-blue-moon beer. We need to go through something together. Othello Racism Essay? That’s why, studies have shown, men tend to make their deepest friends through periods of intense engagement, like school or military service or sports. That’s how many of us are comfortable. When I was talking to graduate Richard Schwartz, the psychiatrist told me something that had me staring off into the distance and racism essay nodding my head.

Researchers have noticed a trend in photographs taken of essays people interacting. When female friends are talking to each other, they do it face to face. But guys stand side by side, looking out at shakespeare othello, the world together. But in the middle years of life, those side-by-side opportunities to get together are exactly the sort of things that fall off. When you have a gap in your schedule, you feel bad running off with the fellas and shakespeare leaving your partner alone to shakespeare racism look for the shoes. And the guys I’d like to spend time with are all locked in the exact same bind as me. Planning anything takes great initiative, and if you have to take initiative every time you see someone, it’s easy to radiography research papers just let it disappear. That’s why Schwartz and others say the best way for men to shakespeare racism forge and maintain friendships is through built-in regularity something that is always on persuasive english, the schedule. This worked well for me over the past year (however unintentionally) with a college buddy named Matt.

We signed up to run last April’s Boston Marathon together, and even though he lives in Chicago, we were in regular contact about our training, his trip to Boston, etc., and our relationship became stronger than ever, even though our best and deepest conversation occurred during the shakespeare, four-plus hours it took us to get from Hopkinton to english essay Boston, side by side. We repeated the process with the Chicago Marathon in October, this time in less than four hours (thank God for the flat Midwest), but we haven’t had much contact since then, because we’re no longer going through anything together. I texted him to congratulate him after the Cubs won the World Series. He did the same for me after the shakespeare racism, Patriots won the Super Bowl. Good Hunting Movie Essay? But I can’t remember the last time I talked to Matt since. We have no further plans. That would take initiative. WHENEVER THE POWERBALL or Mega Millions gets over $100 million, I’ll buy a ticket. Othello? My wife thinks I’m nuts, that I’m just wasting our money. I tell her she’s missing the point. Essays? I know I’m not going to win, but in that time between when I buy the ticket and the TV news trucks do not show up outside my home, my fantasy brain answers a question for me: What would I really do if I didn’t have to do all this other stuff?

For a while, this was an shakespeare racism essay, escape fantasy that involved loading my family into an old Volkswagen bus, hitting the road, and setting off to look for America. That ended when I actually managed to save up enough money to buy an shakespeare racism essay, old Volkswagen bus, an endeavor that did not lead to a tour of othello this country’s national parks but of career change graduate its auto repair shops. The bus is gone. And so is the escape fantasy. I’m very happy in my life.

If I need someone to shakespeare confide in, I have my wife. All the pieces are here, except one the shakespeare racism essay, guys. I’d like to think they’re also missing me and are just locked into this same prison of commitments. But I don’t want to shakespeare essay wait until we’re all retired and racism can reconnect on a golf course. It feels silly to shakespeare racism wait that long, and thanks to this stupid story, I know it’s quite dangerous. So I’m ready to steal a simple concept that doesn’t require lottery money.

A few years ago, shortly after I’d moved from the city to shakespeare Cape Ann on the North Shore, I took a kayaking class run out of racism a shop in Essex. Othello Racism Essay? At some point, the man who owned the shakespeare racism essay, place, an older guy named Ozzy, said something in passing about how he couldn’t do something because he had “Wednesday night.” Slightly confused, I asked him what he was talking about, and he explained an idea to antithesis tera me that was so simple and profound that I resolved one day to steal it . . . when I got older. I think it’s time to admit I’m there. “Wednesday night,” Ozzy explained, was a pact he and his buddies had made many years before, a standing order that on Wednesday nights, if they were in town, they would get together and do something, anything. Everything about the idea seemed quaint and profound the name that was a lack of a name (such a guy move); the placement in the middle of the week; the fact that they’d continued it for so long. Shakespeare Racism? But most of all, it was the acknowledgment from male friends that they needed their male friends, for no other reason than they just did. I tried to reach Ozzy, but he takes the winters off to radiography go skiing in California and the number I had was disconnected. When I tried to get an e-mail address from a mutual friend, I was told he didn’t do e-mail.

This guy seems like he has some things figured out. So, Ozzy, I’m stealing Wednesday night. Obviously, it’s not going to work every time, but experts say that even the act of trying to increase your friendships can benefit your health, so consider this the beginning of that. Shakespeare Essay? I’m OK with admitting I’m a little lonely. Doesn’t make me a loser. Doesn’t make you a loser. Fellas, what are you doing this Wednesday? And the one after that? And the research papers, one after that? Consider it a standing invitation.

Let’s do something together.

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cooking. Hunting. Early in his career, Keller met up with the world famous master chef, Roland Henin. Othello Racism. Henin guided Keller through the process of mastering the culinary arts , teaching him that cooking well involved feeling, and not just technique. Keller cites Henin as his mentor and a large part of his success. He relocated.

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What everyone had forgotten to career essay, tell each other was not to eat in class, as it was one of the first few rules we learnt when coming to the Culinary Institute of America (Singapore). Therefore when our dean Chef Eve Felder came in cheerful as usual to greet us, she was shocked to shakespeare racism, see a few of. ART 101 Course Material - art101dotcom. ART 101 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit ART 101 Week 1 CheckPoint Visual Literacy ART 101 Week 1 Assignment Reading Art Practicing Iconography ART 101 Week 2 CheckPoint Art and Intention ART 101 Week 2 DQ 1 and radiography research papers DQ 2 ART 101 Week 3 CheckPoint Analytical and Expressive. ART 101 Week 1 Assignment Reading Art Practicing Iconography For more course tutorials visit Assignment: “Reading” Art : Practicing Iconography Iconography is the practice of understanding symbolism in art and is one aspect of visual literacy. Understanding visual literacy. Photography is an art Photography is an essay art that took many years and efforts of many individuals to shakespeare othello essay, perfect. Many different people in many different fields contributed to shakespeare othello, this light writing. Chemists, artists, inventors, and engineers all lending a crafting hand to the art . Photography can be defined.

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CULINARY ARTS PURPOSE The purpose of shakespeare this paper is to introduce the reader to the wonderful world of culinary arts . In the beginning people only saw cooking as a hobby or a chore. Now, it is regarded as a highly skilled profession. The passion for cooking can be found all around the world. Food has. Art history is the academic study of objects of art in shakespeare essay, their historical development and stylistic contexts, i.e. genre, design, format, and look.[1] Moreover, art history generally is the research, research of artists and their cultural and racism essay social contributions.[2] As a term, Art history (also history of art). Cooking As an Art Form Food, cooking, and whatever related to these themes are usually considered as an art because food is an everyday item that has a wide meaning for all people. Food can be considered as an art ; for example: the decoration of a food, the way a food is constructed in the plates.

Advocacy of the Commons: Art and Creativity. Walljasper’s criteria and elaborate on the future of this common. For this essay , I will be identifying, analyzing, defining the challenge, and arguing the concern for my common topic of: the value of art and persuasive english essay creativity. Shakespeare Othello. Nowadays, art and creativity is valued more for shakespeare othello racism essay wealthy status instead of being valued.

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Gentian Ascension Scholarship Donor Statement. Initiated by English alumnus Art Kaufman ’76, this scholarship is established to benefit an undergraduate student who has overcome significant academic obstacles and shows talent as a writer. Othello? The award amount is help essays, $1,000 to be applied to racism, student tuition. Art Kaufman ’76 is a long-time contributor and friend to the English Department. After 33 years working in the investment trenches, Art traded his career for will retirement in pursuit of the shakespeare racism essay lifestyle he treasured as a CU English major. To bring it all full circle, he and his wife of antithesis tera 30 years moved to Boulder to be closer to his alma mater. Racism Essay? He is currently “living the dream,” reading the classics, writing for personal amusement and with academic essays, perhaps best of all, auditing English and art history classes at othello racism essay, his favorite university. Off campus, he’s enjoying all the outdoor activities a life in Boulder affords. Radiography Research? In the othello racism essay future he hopes to mentor late bloomers like himself, kids who hit the snooze button for a few years before waking up.

by fund initiator, Art Kaufman. Welcome fellow late-bloomers, slackers, snooze-alarm experts and those of persuasive essay you who took the long way to reach this webpage. Congratulations, you made it this far, and shakespeare, that’s saying something, am I right? Yes, “I’m a lot like you,” as the saying goes. Took me longer to graduate high school than it took Noah to build the Ark, than the Chinese to build the Big Wall, than it took David Foster Wallace to write Infinite Jest. And college, I don’t wanna even think about it.

But somewhere along the line I got an english essay, academic toehold, found a little something inside that bled out onto those yellow legal pads we wrote on, back in the day. And now I’m here, in give-back mode, because I can and shakespeare essay, because CU’s English Department rescued me from a life of help with academic indifference. I can think of no worse fate. Some debts you can never repay in full. In this case I’m hoping to square it with you folks, in increments. We start at the low end with a $1,000 scholarship. The award may increase as time goes on, depending on the financial performance of the fund. Do yourselves a favor: after you get up from shakespeare othello racism, your nap, walk the antithesis tera dog, and check the fridge, apply for othello racism this scholarship . Papers? Write something from the heart, something that will piss you off or make you laugh out shakespeare othello racism essay loud.

I’m here to tell you that you’ve got nothing to lose. Spring 2015 commencement address by Art Kaufman. English alumni commencement addresses are a relatively new thing at CU. The department hopes, of course, that in telling our stories, in this case, my story, you will find some modicum of encouragement, if not inspiration. What the department didn’t consider is how much my address might discourage them from offering this honor in the future.

You’ll let me know after, whether I succeeded, on either count. I’m no corporate wig, no dot com coat-tailer, no patent holder and certainly no great American novelist (although I wrote restaurant reviews for radiography papers the Denver Business Journal for shakespeare othello essay a while). Graduate Essay? I flatter myself when I say I’m kind of like you, only older, balder, and maybe a little savvier. I’ve audited classes with you for the past three spring terms. Shakespeare Othello? I’ve got a sense of how nimble your minds are, how funny you can be.

You guys are way, way ahead of where I was, when I was your age. In 1969, late in my junior year in high school, I had that advisor meeting we’ve all had about our future, as it pertains to higher ed — what colleges might want us on their campuses, the programs, the majors in which we might thrive. Shakespeare Racism? Here’s how mine went: I sat down across from my advisor, a wheezy oldster with tobacco stained fingers, and watched him thumb through my x-ray thin resume. He pushed back in shakespeare othello, his chair, removed his glasses, rubbed the bridge of persuasive english essay his nose and said “Mr. Racism? Kaufman, you’re the low man on the totem pole.

Out of 593 students in essay, your class, you’re the five-hundred-and-ninety-third.” Dude was enjoying himself. He made some other cracks about attending a different school next year, that I wasn’t wanted, blah blah blah, but I was out the door before he finished his obsequies. Othello Essay? Maybe I didn’t know that I had broken all my past records for failure, but I knew I wasn’t doing so great in good will, school. Shakespeare Othello Racism Essay? No need to throw dirt on help academic essays, me. How did it come to this? I’ll tell you: Each day I rode the bus from West Philly to the El stop, juddered downtown on the train, transferred to the subway, and stared at my feet the entire way to shakespeare othello essay, North Philly to essay, attend an all-boys school dedicated to math and science. I hated it. Shakespeare Othello Racism Essay? I had zero interest in the subjects, there were no girls, and it took all day to get back and forth. I stopped going, took the career essay truant’s way out. What was I doing in the spring of 1969?

I wasn’t going to othello, demonstrations, wasn’t trying to levitate the Pentagon or planning a Woodstock vacation on Trip Advisor. That came later. No, I had taken an interest in the horses. I developed a fondness for pari-mutuel wagering. To a city kid, the sights and smells of the stables, horses parading in the paddock, the tote-board cipher, sitting in the grandstands with the strangest menagerie of citizens, aliens lifted right out of a Zola novel or a Bob Dylan lyric, was intoxicating. Persuasive Essay? Racetracks are fascinating places. The racing form became my Rosetta Stone. Shakespeare Essay? I decoded the charts, studied bloodlines, examined the with academic risk vs. reward and davined over the details. Yes, I switched schools, repeated eleventh grade, got a toe hold, graduated, found a college that would accept anyone, avoided the draft, took all the electives I could, elevated my GPA to a lofty 2.47 and, unbelievably, was admitted to CU on a work/study scholarship in the fall of 1973 as a second-semester sophomore. I worked throughout my scholastic career.

I drove a fork lift on the east campus and waited tables at the Red Lion. But mostly I punched the clock at shakespeare othello racism essay, Liquor Mart, schlepping pony kegs, stocking shelves, working the register. Change Graduate? It was there that I met my future ex-wife. Let me step back and say a few words about CU, about our English department. Never had I met so many brilliant professors or been so motivated by a teacher’s insights, humor or exactitude. Essay? I took the hardest classes, taught by the most notorious graders. My Semiotics class — off the charts hard. Murphy’s Theory of Literary Criticism — forget about it.

Greek Classics with Kopf and radiography papers, my favorite, Russian Lit with Dale Plank. Oh, man. I would’ve walked across the steppes of Russia for that guy. I had some catching up to do. I’d spent a dissipated youth and essay, now, once challenged, I determined to apply myself. I didn’t think about where this might take me, what type of career studying Dostoyevsky and racism, Pope and othello racism, Pynchon would afford me. I just needed to know what made these guys tick. I dug in, read and wrote, wrote and english, read. And the Flatirons, everyday, the Flatirons….Whoa. It’s a couple years later, I’m married, still busting rocks at Liquor Mart and volunteering at essay, the September School. I am unfulfilled and semi-poor, and, I’ve got obligations.

So one summer day I’m browsing the classifieds, and I see an ad for a coin and stamp store manager. I collected coins with my dad when I was little. What the heck, I’ll go down to Denver and interview. But first, I bought a Coin World Magazine and shakespeare essay, proceeded to memorize it. Shakespeare? I got to the interview, spit out what I could remember, told a few childhood coin collecting tales, and voila! — I’m the new manager. This was 1978. Within six months, this hobby shop job turned into a numismatic investment business. Gold and silver prices were skyrocketing, and folks were in a speculative mood. Research Papers? Check this out — I was filling empty five gallon paint drums full of gold and silver, coins, scrap, bullion, whatever, and mailing them to the main office in Houston, three times a week. It was pretty wild.

Six months before, I’m working at the Mart, right? This went on for another year until one day I got the shakespeare othello essay “brilliant” idea to take this bullion business to antithesis tera, a stock brokerage firm. My bosses thought it was stellar, the idea that I would move massive amounts of rare coins and shakespeare othello, stuff to the clients of Merrill Lynch and Smith Barney. Of course, those folks laughed me right off the premises. Graduate Essay? But I kept going down the food chain until I found a brokerage firm that said fine, as long as I’m properly licensed. I got my licenses, sat down in a real office with a real desk for the first time in my life and then, poof. The zillionaire Hunt Brothers were led away in chains, accused of cornering the shakespeare othello silver markets. The whole collectible market collapsed onto itself. Prices vaporized. And my wife filed for divorce. This is late ’81, early ’82.

Having stepped in it, yet again, left with a Sony TV and eleven-hundred bucks, I bought an open-return plane ticket and went island hopping through Greece, alone, to sort things out. I chose Greece because of those classics courses I took at CU. Aristophanes, Aeschylus and Homer — Professor Kopf animated them so incredibly well. I thought I could see Greece through their eyes. I tutored myself in antithesis tera, Greek for a few weeks and left in the spring of ‘82.

Greece is a mystical place, I’ll leave it to you to discover it on shakespeare othello racism, your own. While I was in Crete, I met and traveled with a South African couple. One day we were talking about my supposed career, when John looked over at me and said, “You have a stockbroker’s license; you should use it.” And then he hit me with the best, maybe the only good advice I’d ever taken at this point in good hunting movie essay, my life. He told me to, “Let my money do the hard work, the heavy lifting, not me.” Build that kind of business successfully, and you’ll be fine. Turns out he was right. When my dough ran out, I came back to that office and started calling people. I called a lot of my ex-father-in-law’s friends. They liked me. I showed up, good markets or bad (there were lots of bad), and started handicapping equites like they were thoroughbreds. That these “professions” can be thought of shakespeare essay as analogous isn’t news.

I began to radiography, get a sense about things — a sense honed by this education — and shakespeare othello, as I did, I began to see the advantages. If I could figure this out, I’d have time and money. Antithesis Tera? Which I did. I also met the love of my life, got remarried and shakespeare othello, raised two fine daughters. Persuasive? You might say I’ve lived a nags to riches kind of life. (By “nags” I mean horses, not wives and othello racism, daughters!) Twenty-five years later I sold my business to a guy not too much different than you. Young guy, CU grad, early thirties, someone I’d known for help with a while.

I saw myself in him, and so I mentored him for a few years until I thought he was ready to shakespeare othello racism, take over. We agreed on a price and radiography papers, shook hands. No contracts, no lawyers, no accountants. Just a handshake. In that first interview, I asked him what was on his nightstand, what was on his e-reader. A Peter Matthiessen novel and some short stories he was trying to read in Spanish, owing to some time spent in Ecuador, traveling.

I didn’t care about racism, his business background. Research Papers? I wanted to know whether or not a handshake would be good enough someday to seal the deal. Had he told me that he was too busy to shakespeare, read, or that there was no time in his life for books, he wouldn’t be running the show. Had I majored in accounting or business, I would have asked the wrong questions. Look. Academic Essays? A time will come when you’ll be asking the essay questions, not sweating the career graduate answers. When my biz matured, I found myself asking the shakespeare othello racism essay managements of companies in whose shares I might one day recommend what they were all about, what was on their nightstand. Radiography? I made more decisions that way than I’d care to racism, count.

So when you’re in persuasive, an interview, — and take as many as you can; it’s all about the interview for racism us — especially for that job to research, which you really aspire, don’t be surprised when the interviewer asks you a similar question. And when they do, stick the landing. Do not say you’re too busy to read. A couple more things: I chafe at the question we’ve all gotten about the essay value of our liberal arts degree, but more specifically, our degree in English. Instead of defending yourself to folks who don’t know Dickens from Dickinson, reverse the question: What can’t I do with an English degree? Ceremonies like these are taking place all over essay, campus. Graduates are restless in shakespeare othello racism, the audience wondering what’s next, just like you. Sure there are those who know, students who’ve been doing laps around the same academic track the past four years.

But mostly they’re like you, except they were reading textbooks, PDFs and online excursus while you were reading those books that are the freaking foundation of our civilization. The Greeks, the Brits, the hunting movie Poets, the Americans. Racism Essay? You’ve been disinterring those tomes which hold humankind’s mysteries, under the good hunting movie klieg lights of professors who held you to a higher standard. That’s some tough stuff. You want symbolism? Ask yourself as a community, right here, in the most soulful, intimate spot on campus, where Shakespeare and othello, Chekov and Ionesco come alive, where your comrades are.

In windowless Math 100, decrepit Chem 245, in a rented tent. Seriously…. Auditing classes these last few years, I’ve heard a lot of talk about “sustainability.” It’s definitely trending. Sustainable resource development, sustainable management, sustainable psychology. Hey great, I applaud those students for working towards a better future, no doubt. But hello, you want sustainable? How about Sophocles, Mary Shelley, Marquez and Bellow?

This sounds outlandish I know, but we invented sustainability as a major. I can’t leave this stage without sharing an idea and a quote with you. Good Will Hunting? Ralph Ellison said that we share our personal stories with each other to shakespeare othello racism, better understand the collective self. “What’s past is prologue” a wise playwright once wrote. It certainly was for hunting movie essay me. Somni-451, the proto-deity in David Mitchell’s “Cloud Atlas,” speaks these words as the world crumbles around her: “Our lives are bound together, past and present. With every crime, every kindness, we give birth to our future.” We, CU English alumni, we are bound together. I need you, just like you will need the othello racism English majors of the future. This is what sustains us, this sense of continuum. Shoulder to shakespeare essay, shoulder, right?

Our careers will never define us. We are much more than our net worth. Infinitely so. Keep a journal and a book nearby to essay, remind yourself when you need to. A couple of persuasive english years ago I was asked to sit in on essay, a career-development roundtable and talk to English majors like you about my life in sales as a stockbroker. Gag. When I was through, the only question I fielded was from a student who asked if I was sorry I hadn’t written the radiography Great American Novel. I don’t remember my answer. I’m sure it was BS.

Now I want a do-over. Hell yes, I am sorry. Shakespeare Othello Racism? But hey, like you, I’m young. I got a little time, so…who knows? Congratulations, graduates! This was awesome. Go Buffs!